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Full text of "Assessing the conservation status of the world's tropical forest. Part 1: sub-regional reviews, tropical Africa (Sections 6-10)"

ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS 
OF THE WORLD'S TROPICAL FOREST 



A contribution to the FAO Forest 
Resources Assessment 1990 




Compiled by 

WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE 

with financial support from 

Overseas Development Administration, UK 



June 1992 



a|N n^5Z 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



MANAGING INFORMATION ON THE WORLD'S BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT 
WCMC 



HOW TO USE THIS REPORT 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . 



PARTI SUBREGIONAL REVIEWS 

1 INTRODUCTION AND METHODS 1 

1.1 INTRODUCING THE WCMC TROPICAL MANAGED AREAS ASSESSMENT . 1 

1.1.1 Background 1 

1.1.2 FAG Forest Resources Assessment 1990 1 

1.1.3 WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 1 

1 . 1 .4 Status of the FAG Assessment and its implications on the WCMC 

Assessment 3 

1.2 METHODS 3 

1.2.1 Scope 3 

1.2.2 Data collection 4 

1.2.3 Data management 6 

1.2.4 Analysis and review of information 6 

REFERENCES 10 

ANNEX 1.1 List of countries covered by the WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 

1990 11 

ANNEX 1.2 Letter to heads of all forest administrations in developing countries 12 

GLOSSARY 15 

TROPICAL ASIA & PACIFIC 

2 SOUTH ASIA 18 

2.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 18 

2.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 18 

2.2.1 Forestry Sector 19 

2.2.2 Wildlife Sector 20 

2.2.3 Additional Sectors 20 

2.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 20 

2.3.1 Forestry Sector 20 

2.3.2 Wildlife Sector 21 

2.3.3 Additional Sectors 21 

2.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 21 



2.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 22 

2.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 22 

2.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 24 

2.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 24 

2.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 24 

2.5.2 Other National Initiatives 24 

2.5.3 International Initiatives 25 

2.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 25 

REFERENCES 27 

Annex 2.1 List of conservation areas 40 

Annex 2.2 Extent of notified forests 72 

3 CONTINENTAL SOUTH EAST ASIA 79 

3.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 79 

3.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 79 

3.2.1 Forestry Sector 79 

3.2.2 Wildlife Sector 81 

3.2.3 Odier Sectors 81 

3.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 81 

3.3.1 Forestry Sector 82 

3.3.2 Wildlife Sector 82 

3.3.3 Other Sectors 82 

3.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 83 

3.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 83 

3.4.1 Forestry Sector 83 

3.4.2 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 83 

3.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 85 

3.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 85 

3.5.2 Other National Initiatives 85 

3.5.3 International Initiatives 85 

3.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 86 

REFERENCES 87 

Annex 3.1 List of conservation areas 99 

Annex 3.2 Extent of notified forests 108 



4 INSULAR SOUTH EAST ASIA 113 

4.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 113 

4.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 113 

4.2.1 Forestry Sector 113 

4.2.2 Wildlife Sector 1 14 

4.2.3 Other Sectors 1 15 

4.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 115 

4.3.1 Forestry Sector 115 

4.3.2 Wildlife Sector 115 

4.3.3 Other Sectors 1 16 

4.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 116 

4.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 116 

4.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 116 

4.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 117 

4.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 118 

4.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 118 

4.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 118 

4.5.2 Other National Initiatives 118 

4.5.3 International Initiatives 119 

4.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 119 

REFERENCES 120 

Annex 4.1 List of conservation areas 132 

Annex 4.2 Extent of notified forests 183 

5 OCEANIA: WESTERN PACIFIC 189 

5.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 189 

5.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 189 

5.2.1 Forestry Sector 189 

5.2.2 Wildlife Sector 190 

5.2.3 Other Sectors 190 

5.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 190 

5.3.1 Forestry Sector 190 

5.3.2 Wildlife Sector 191 

5.3.3 Other sectors 191 

5.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 191 

5.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry sector 191 

5.4.2 Conservation Areas, Forestry and Wildlife and Additional Sectors 191 

5.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 193 



5.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 193 

5.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 193 

5.5.2 Other National Initiatives 193 

5.5.3 International Initiatives 194 

5.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 195 

REFERENCES 196 

Annex 5,1 List of conservation areas 208 

Annex 5.2 Extent of notified forests 217 

TROPICAL AFRICA 

6 WEST SAHELIAN AFRICA 222 

6.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 222 

6.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 222 

6.2.1 Forestry Sector 222 

6.2.2 Wildlife Sector 223 

6.2.3 Other Sectors 224 

6.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 224 

6.3.1 Forestry Sector 224 

6.3.2 Wildlife Sector 224 

6.3.3 Additional Sectors 224 

6.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 224 

6.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 224 

6.4.1 Forestry Sector 224 

6.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry and Wildlife Sectors 224 

6.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 225 

6.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 226 

6.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 226 

6.5.2 Other National Initiatives 226 

6.5.3 International Initiatives 226 

6.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 227 

REFERENCES 228 

Annex 6.1 List of conservation areas 242 

Annex 6.2 Extent of notified forests 250 

7 EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 260 

7.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 260 



7.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 260 

7.2.1 Forestry Sector 260 

7.2.2 Wildlife Sector 261 

7.2.3 Additional Sectors 261 

7.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 261 

7.3.1 Forestry Sector 261 

7.3.2 Wildlife Sector 262 

7.3.3 Additional Sectors 262 

7.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 262 

7.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 262 

7.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 262 

7.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 263 

7.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 264 

7.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 265 

7.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 265 

7.5.2 Other National Initiatives 265 

7.5.3 International Initiatives 265 

7.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 266 

REFERENCES 267 

Annex 7.1 List of conservation areas 279 

Annex 7.2 Extent of notified forests 294 

8 WEST AFRICA 300 

8.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 300 

8.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 300 

8.2.1 Forestry Sector . 300 

8.2.2 Wildlife Sector 301 

8.2.3 Other Sectors 301 

8.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 301 

8.3.1 Forestry Sector 301 

8.3.2 Wildlife Sector 301 

8.3.3 Other Sectors 301 

8.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 302 

8.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 302 

8.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 302 

8.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 302 

8.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 303 

8.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 303 

8.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 303 

8.5.2 Other National Initiatives 303 

8.5.3 International Initiatives 304 



8.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 304 

REFERENCES 305 

Annex 8.1 List of conservation areas 318 

Annex 8.2 Extent of notified forests 331 

9 CENTRAL AFRICA 339 

9.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 339 

9.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 339 

9.2.1 Forestry Sector 340 

9.2.2 Wildlife Sector 340 

9.2.3 Additional Sectors 340 

9.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 340 

9.3.1 Forestry Sector 340 

9.3.2 Wildlife Sector 341 

9.3.3 Additional Sectors 341 

9.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 341 

9.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 341 

9.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 341 

9.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 342 

9.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 343 

9.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 343 

9.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 343 

9.5.2 Other National Initiatives 343 

9.5.3 International Initiatives 343 

9.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 344 

REFERENCES 345 

Annex 9.1 List of conservation areas 359 

Annex 9.2 Extent of notified forests 369 

10 TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA (including Madagascar) 376 

10.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 376 

10.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 376 

10.2.1 Forestry Sector 376 

10.2.2 Wildlife Sector 377 

10.2.3 Additional Sectors 378 



10 J MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 378 

10.3.1 Forestry Sector 378 

10.3.2 Wildlife Sector 378 

10.3.3 Additional Sectors 379 

10.3.4 Non-Govemmental Organisations 379 

10.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 379 

10.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 379 

10.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors .... 379 

10.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 382 

10.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 382 

10.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 382 

10.5.2 Other National Initiatives 382 

10.5.3 International Initiatives 383 

10.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 384 

REFERENCES 385 

Annex 10.1 List of conservation areas 402 

Annex 10.2 Extent of notified forests 418 

TROPICAL LATIN AMERICA 

11 CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO 387 

11.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 387 

11.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 388 

11.2.1 Forestry Sector 388 

11.2.2 Wildlife Sector 389 

11.2.3 Additional Sectors 389 

11.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 390 

11.3.1 Forestry Sector 390 

11.3.2 Wildlife Sector 391 

11.3.3 Additional Sectors 391 

11.3.4 Non-Govemmental Organisations 391 

11.4 MANAGED AREA STATUS 392 

11.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 392 

11.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors .... 392 

11.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 394 

11.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 394 

11.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 394 

11.5.2 Other National Initiatives 394 

11.5.3 International Initiatives 395 

11.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 396 



REFERENCES 397 

Annex 11.1 List of conservation areas 414 

Annex 11.2 Extent of notified forests 431 

12 CARIBBEAN 439 

12.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 439 

12.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 440 

12.2.1 Forestry Sector 440 

12.2.2 Wildlife Sector 441 

12.2.3 Other Sectors 442 

12.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 442 

12.3.1 Forestry Sector 443 

12.3.2 Wildlife Sector 443 

12.3.3 Other Sectors 444 

12.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 444 

12.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 444 

12.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 444 

12.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry and Wildlife Sectors 445 

12.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 447 

12.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 447 

12.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 447 

12.5.2 Other National Initiatives 448 

12.5.3 International Initiatives 450 

12.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 451 

REFERENCES 452 

Annex 12.1 List of conservation areas 480 

Annex 12.2 Extent of notified forests 517 

13 TROPICAL SOUTH AMERICA 588 

13.1 fflSTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 588 

13.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 588 

13.2.1 Forestry Sector 589 

13.2.2 Wildlife Sector 590 

13.2.3 Additional Sectors 590 

13 J MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 590 

13.3.1 Forestry Sector 591 

13.3.2 Wildlife Sector 591 



13.3.3 Additional Sectors 592 

13.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 592 

13.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 592 

13.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 592 

13.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors .... 593 

13.4.3 Contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation 594 

13.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 595 

13.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 595 

13.5.2 Other National Initiatives 595 

13.5.3 International Initiatives 596 

13.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 597 

REFERENCES 598 

Annex 13.1 List of conservation areas 618 

Annex 13.2 Extent of notified forests 653 

PARTE REGIONAL AND GLOBAL REVIEW 
TROPICAL ASIA & PACinC, TROPICAL AFRICA AND TROPICAL LATIN AMERICA 

1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 663 

2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION (FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE 
SECTORS) 663 

2. 1 Forestry Policy 664 

2.3 Forestry Legislation 664 

2.4 Wildlife Policy 665 

2.5 Wildlife Legislation 666 

2.6 Additional Sector Policy and Legislation 666 

3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 667 

4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 668 

4. 1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 668 

4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 669 

4.2.1 Coverage 669 

4.2.2 Representativeness 670 

4.2.3 Integrity 670 

4.2.4 Effectiveness 671 

4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 671 

5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 672 

5.1 Expanding the Conservation Areas Network 672 

5.2 Regional conventions and programmes 672 

5.3 International Initiatives 673 

6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 674 



REFERENCES 675 

PART in MAPPING TROPICAL MANAGED AREAS 676 

1 Sources of maps with annotations 678 

TROPICAL ASIA & PACIFIC 

2 South Asia Fig. 2.1 - Fig. 2.6 

3 Continental South East Asia Fig. 3.1 - Fig. 3.5 

4 Insular South East Asia Fig. 4. 1 - Fig. 4.5 

5 Oceania Fig. 5.1 - Fig. 5.4 

TROPICAL AFRICA 

6 West Sahelian Africa Fig. 6.1 - Fig. 6.7 

7 East Sahelian Africa Fig. 7.1 - Fig. 7.6 

8 West Africa Fig. 8.1 - Fig. 8.8 

9 Central Africa Fig. 9.1 - Fig. 9.6 

10 Tropical Southern Africa (including Madagascar) Fig. 10.1 - Fig. 10.11 

TROPICAL LATIN AMERICA 

11 Central America (including Mexico) Fig. 11.1 - Fig. 11.8 

12 Caribbean Fig. 12.1 - Fig. 12.23 

13 Latin America Fig. 13.1 - Fig. 13.9 



1 INTRODUCTION AND METHODS 



MANAGING INFORMATION ON THE WORLD'S BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT WCMC 

The Earth's biological and other natural resources provide many economic, social and aesthetic benefits to 
mankind. This is particularly true of tropical forests which support over half the world's biological diversity, 
as well as provide much needed foreign exchange, and contribute to the livelihood of rural human populations 
in many developing countries. It is essential, therefore, that effective programmes for sustainable human 
development are based on conservation objectives. Responsible institutions and individuals need access to a 
service that provides factual information on the conservation status of the world's biological resources in a 
timely, focused and professional way. 

This service is provided by the World Conserration Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. Established in 1988 
as a company limited by guarantee with charitable status, WCMC is managed as a joint-venture between the 
three partners in the World Conservation Strategy and its successor Caring for the Earth: lUCN - The World 
Conservation Union, UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme, and WWF - World Wide Fund for 
Nature. Its mission is to provide information on the status, security, management and utilisation of the world's 
biological diversity to support conservation and sustainable development. 

To implement its mission, WCMC maintains substantial databases on the status and distribution of plant and 
animal species of conservation and development interest; habitats of conservation concern, particularly tropical 
forests, coral reefs and wetlands; the global network of conservation areas; and the international trade in wildlife 
species and their derivative products. Much of this information is managed using Geographic Information 
Systems, and is supported by an extensive bibliography of published and 'grey' literature. WCMC is also 
involved in providing support for the expansion of national data management capabilities in developing 
countries, and in developing communication networks for the flow of information. 

WCMC contributes its data to GEMS - the Global Environment Monitoring System, coordinated by UNEP. 
GEMS is a collective programme of the world community to acquire, through global monitoring and assessment, 
the data that are needed for the rational management of the environment. GEMS is an element of the United 
Nations Earthwatch Programme. 

Working closely with the lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected areas since its inception in 1981, 
the WCMC Protected Areas Data Unit has compiled an extensive database of the world's conservation areas 
currently in excess of 30,000 records. Each record includes information on size, date of establishment, national 
designation, geographical coordinates, biogeographic province and, in the case of forest reserves, function. 
Boundaries of many of these conservation areas have been digitised from maps using a Geographic Information 
System, enabling them to be plotted and overlaid onto other georeferenced datasets for analytical and 
presentation purposes. In cases where maps of conservation areas are not available for digitising, the 
geographical coordinates can be used to plot their locations. This database, and associated digital files, has been 
expanded under the WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 and forms the basis to the present report. 

The WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 is the first attempt to assess the contribution of the 
forestry sector to nature conservation. This assessment is therefore in many respects prototypical and in time 
could be significantly improved. This will require major improvements in the management of information on 
forestry sector data relating to protection and conservation, at the national level, and thus subsequently at the 
sub-regional, regional and global levels. In many instances this assessment has had to be carried out at two 
levels, based either on information that is derived from the site-specific level, or information that is only 
available at the aggregated system level. In the latter case, therefore, it is not possible to provide information 
on mean size and size distribution, location information, overlap with wildlife sector conservation areas, or 
precise numbers and areas of sites assigned to production, protection or conservation uses. 

Future assessments could be made more comprehensive and more reliable if this detailed, site-specific 
information becomes available for both wildlife and forestry sectors. 



HOW TO USE THIS REPORT 

Findings from the WCMC Assessment are presented in this final report to the Overseas Development 
Administration, UK, which has fimded the project. The report represents WCMC's contribution to the FAO 
Forest Resources Assessment 1990. It has been planned in close consultation with FAO so that its contents can 
be readily incorporated within or supplement the FAO Assessment. It comprises three parts as follows: 

Part I subregional reviews of managed areas in tropical countries for Asia & Pacific, Africa, and Latin 

America; 

Part n regional and global overview of managed areas for each of the three tropical regions (Asia & 
Pacific, Africa, and Latin America), based on the subregional reviews in Part I; and 

Part ni maps and lists of managed areas for each tropical country. 

The report is intended to be a source of information and analysis rather than to be read from cover to cover. 
The primary means of accessing this information is through the Contents list. Before dipping into the main 
body of the report, the reader is urged to browse Section 1.2 on Methods which not only explains how the 
information has been collected and compiled, but also draws attention to its limitations. 

The subregional reviews in Part I, which include summary statistics for individual countries, have been compiled 
according to a standard format to enable comparisons to be made directly between countries and subregions. 
Each subregional section is self-contained, complete with bibliography and annexes in which summary data on 
the forest estate are presented and conservation areas are listed. The exceptions are the country maps of 
managed and conservation areas which, because of their larger A3-size, are presented separately in Pan III. 
The conservation areas listed in Annexes X.l of the subregional sections are cross-referenced to the maps in 
Part III, enabling the location of individual sites to be identified from the maps. Sources of maps with 
annotations are provided in Section 1 of Part III. Part II comprises regional and global reviews based on 
summary details extracted from each subregional section in Part I. 

A number of terms have been used which have very specific meanings so far as this report is concerned. 
Examples include forest land, managed area, conservation area, forestry sector, wildlife sector and total area. 
These and others are defuied in the Glossary at the end of Section 1 . 

Finally, this report is largely a review and analysis of information contained in the four-volume series Protected 
areas of the world: a review of national systems prepared by WCMC and published by lUCN for the IV World 
Parks Congress, Caracas, 10-21 February 1992 (lUCN, 1992). Referencing of the text in this report has been 
kept to a minimum, thereby avoiding repetition of the extensive bibliographies contained in the four-volume 
series. These should be consulted for much of the background information on national conservation area 
networks, with details of their legislative and administrative basis, and of their representativeness. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Production of this report has been based largely on the substantial conservation areas database and associated 
digital maps that WCMC manages, supplemented by a massive pantropical data gathering exercise. This 
information is drawn from an extensive network of conservation area professionals within forestry and wildlife 
authorities, as well as those within scientific institutions and conservation bodies. WCMC wishes to express 
its thanks to these individuals and their agencies, too numerous to mention individually, for their support without 
which it would be imable to operate. WCMC recognises with particular gratitude the fundamental contribution 
of the rUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, whose commitment to WCMC over the years 
has helped the Centre to develop its capability in managing information on the world's conservation areas. 
WCMC also acknowledges the support of the lUCN Forest Conservation Programme, which was instrumental 
in initiating this project, and the lUCN Environmental Law Centre for its help with information on conservation 
areas legislation. 

Staff at WCMC involved in the Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 include Mike Adam, Clare Billington, 
Simon Blythe, Gillian Bunting, Daphne Clark, Graham Drucker, Harriet Gillett, Donald Gordon, 
Michael Green, Thomas Moriarty, James Paine, Corinna Ravilious, Deborah Rothera, Joel Smith, 
Mark Spalding and Alison Suter. The project has been managed by Jeremy Harrison and coordinated by 
Michael Green with assistance from Clare Billington and James Paine. 

The WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 has been fiinded entirely by the Overseas Development 
Administration of the UK under Research Scheme No. 4544. Particular thanks are due to staff within the 
Natural Resources and Environment Department who have supported this initiative through its various stages. 

WCMC has welcomed the opportunity to integrate this project with the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990. 
The support of Dr K D Singh, its coordinator, and his colleagues is greatly appreciated. 



1 INTRODUCTION AND METHODS 
1.1 INTRODUCING THE WCMC TROPICAL MANAGED AREAS ASSESSMENT 

1.1.1 Background 

The clearance of tropical forests, both rain forests and dry forests is an issue at the top of the environmental 
agenda. Most tropical forest occurs within developing nations where pressures are greatest from burgeoning 
populations to exploit this resource for its products and convert forest land to agriculture. Meanwhile, 
developed nations are concerned that such forests contain half the world's species, as well as playing an 
important role in maintaining global climatic stability. 

In order to assess the status of tropical forests (and woodlands) and identify trends in deforestation and 
afforestation, FAO and UNEP conducted a survey of tropical forest resources in 76 tropical countries in 1978- 
1981 (FAO, 1981). It was concluded from the Tropical Forest Resources Assessment 1980 that human 
population growth and agricultural expansion are the main causes of deforestation in the tropics. The 1980 
Assessment was instrumental in mobilising global support for the Tropical Forestry Action Plan which aims to 
stem, and eventually reverse, the process of deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics. 

Much of this deforestation and degradation is umnanaged, uncontrolled and unsustainable, providing no long- 
term benefits to the local people involved. An integrated approach to land-use is needed whereby: forests are 
converted to agriculture only where soils are rich; they are managed for minor forest products for the benefit 
of local people as well as for timber production; and they are selectively protected in order to maintain 
ecological services, genetic resources and biological diversity. Such protection forests are a vital resource for 
local people, and are being managed increasingly for the direct benefit of local communities on whom ultimately 
depends the future integrity and maintenance of conservation area systems. 

1.1.2 FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990 

Aware of the need to improve and update the baseline information gathered under the 1980 Assessment in order 
to keep governments and the international community informed of the state of tropical forest resources, FAO 
is carrying out an assessment for 1990 (FAO, 1990). The FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990 complements 
the new round of assessments of forest resources in temperate countries conducted under the auspices of the 
FAG/ECE Timber Committee in Geneva for the reference year 1990. It was also intended that the scope of 
the 1990 Assessment would be expanded to include non-tropical developing countries, where trends in 
deforestation and degradation are linked with processes of desertification as well as with pressure from 
agriculture and inadequate management. However, this part of the 1990 Assessment has not yet been funded. 

It was generally recognised that the 1980 Assessment was over-concerned with commodity production, notably 
timber, and that more emphasis should be given to the service fimctions of forest, including environmental 
protection and nature conservation. This is being addressed by the WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 
1990 which is designed to quantify the environmental services of tropical forests (particularly with respect to 
conservation areas) and form an integral part of the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990. Efficient 
integrated land-use is essential to ensuring that local people benefit from available forest resources. Hence the 
importance of the WCMC Assessment in helping to ensure that conservation areas are considered by resource- 
use planners to be efficient forms of land-use. 

1.1.3 WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 

Tropical forests have long been valued for their timber, on account of which governments of many countries 
have either nationalised them or developed extensive networks of forest reserves to safeguard them from over- 
exploitation and conversion to other forms of use. Such provisions have often proved inadequate due to a lack 
of proper management practices and enforcement measures in the face of ever mounting pressures on forests 
for their timber and potential agricultural land. While attention within the forestry sector has been focused 
primarily on their timber production value, with exploitation all too frequently occurring at unsustainable levels, 
there has been a growing awareness of the ecological values of tropical forests as centres of biological diversity 

1 



and endemism, and for watershed management. Increasingly, countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia have 
been allocating forest reserves or parts thereof to protect watersheds and conserve biological resources. But 
quite how much tropical forest is reserved for such protection and conservation purposes within the forestry 
sector is not known. 

The WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 is a three-year project (July 1989-June 1992) funded by 
the Overseas Development Administration, UK under Research Scheme No. R4544. It is being carried out in 
collaboration with lUCN - The World Conservation Union, in particular its Forest Conservation Programme 
and Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, and in coo[>eration with the Food and Agricultural 
Organization of the United Nations to compliment its Forest Resources Assessment 1990. 

Its overall objective is to complement the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990 by quantifying the 
contribution of forestry, wildlife and other sectors to nature conservation in the tropics. This will help to 
identify gaps in existing managed and conservation area networks and, particularly with respect to the forestry 
sector, highlight the need for increased allocation of tropical forests for protection and conservation purposes. 

Under the terms of the ODA Memorandum, the specific objectives of the WCMC Tropical Managed Areas 
Assessment 1990 with respect to "each of the countries covered by the [FAO] Tropical Forest Resources 
Assessment Project" are as follows: 

■ to update information held by WCMC on conservation area systems, and to expand its information on 
managed areas other than those established primarily for nature conservation, particularly with respect 
to forest reserves managed for sustainable resource use; 

■ to present this information in short accounts of the state of national managed and conservation area 
systems, drawing the main conclusions into regional summaries; 

■ to map managed and conservation area systems on a Geographic Information System; 

■ to use this GIS facility to analyse the coverage of different vegetation types or bioclimatic units by 
managed and conservation areas, and to examine the coverage afforded to different regions by those 

systems; 

■ to prepare analyses of managed area coverage by forest type and management category, and present 
this in a form that is compatible with the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990 tables and reports; 
and 



to prepare further analyses and reports as time permits. 



These objectives have been met, with the exception of the analysis of vegetation/bioclimatic types, and findings 
are presented in this report and in the four-volume series Proteaed Areas of the World: A Review of National 
Systems (lUCN, 1992), compiled by WCMC. The latter country-by-country review of the world's conservation 
areas was produced for the IV World Parks Congress, Caracas, 10-21 February 1992 under a separate but 
related project funded by British Petroleum. It comprises descriptions, lists and maps of national conservation 
area networks. A considerable amount of information on national conservation area networks generated from 
the WCMC Assessment has been incorporated within this series, which provides the basis of the present report. 

It has not been possible to examine coverage of the different vegetation/bioclimatic types by managed and 
conservation areas within the available time. It has been WCMC's intention throughout the project to base this 
analysis on the ecofloristic zone maps of the tropics produced for FAO by the Institut de la Carte Internationale 
de la Vegetation, University Paul Sabatier, Toulouse. Such maps have been available for tropical Asia 
(Sharma, 1986a) and Africa (Sharma, 1986b) for some time, but those for parts of Latin America have still to 
be completed. WCMC did not acquire the digital datasets of ecofloristic zones for Asia, Africa and Latin 
America (excluding Central America and Mexico) from FAO until the penultimate month of the project. 
Subsequent technical problems with the geo-referencing of the digital ecofloristic zone data sets precluded an 
analysis based on protected areas data sets. 



It is still planned to assess the representativeness of the managed and conservation area networks with respect 
to ecofloristic zones, but in the months immediately following completion of this re|X)rt. This study will be 
carried out in close cooperation with FAO and the results presented in a separate report. 

1.1.4 Status of the FAO Assessment and its implications on the WCMC Assessment 

The FAO Assessment has changed in several respects from those originally specified in the Guidelines for 
Assessment (FAO, 1990), due to inadequate information and a lack of additional funding. Changes which have 
directly affected the scope of the WCMC Assessment are as follows: 

■ it will cover only tropical countries, with the exception of those in Insular Africa (other than 
Madagascar) and Oceania which have been dropped due to paucity of data. Thus, the FAO Assessment 
currently covers only 100 out of the 130 tropical countries originally identified for inclusion. These 
are listed in Annex 1.1; 

■ it is not being extended to an additional 30 non-tropical developing countries as originally anticipated 
because of a lack of further funding; and 

■ it is no longer planned to produce a series of country briefs due to the lack of a comprehensive 
response from tropical countries. 

In view of the these constraints and developments, the WCMC Assessment has necessarily been modified in 
order to maintain its consistency with the FAO Assessment. It includes 100 of the 101 geopolitical units 
covered by the FAO Assessment (Saint Pierre and Miquelon, listed by FAO under the Caribbean subregion is 
excluded from the WCMC Assessment), plus those five countries in Oceania which have a significant amount 
of forest (i.e. Fiji, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu), and Bermuda as listed 
in Annex 1.1. 

The FAO Assessment will officially end in October 1992 with the completion of a series of regional reports 
covering Asia, Africa and Latin America. It is anticipated that this report will supplement the FAO regional 
reports, or be incorporated within them. A preliminary, summary version of Part II of this report has already 
been presented to FAO for inclusion within its report to the United Nations Conference on the Environment and 
Development (FAO, 1992). 



1.2 METHODS 

1.2.1 Scope 

The WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 covers 106 tropical geopolitical units. These are split 
into 12 subregions and three tropical regions (Latin America, Africa and Asia & Pacific), as shown in Annex 
1.1. 

The scope of the WCMC Assessment was initially wider, covering a total of 163 geopolitical units in line with 
the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990. It included all those in Insular Africa and Oceanian subregions 
and extended to non-tropical developing countries. Government agencies within 158 of these geopolitical units 
were approached for information during the early stages of the project. But it was subsequently trimmed in line 
with changes within the FAO Assessment, as explained above (Section 1.1.4). 

The study is focused on managed areas, particularly those having a protection or conservation role which are 
referred to as conservation areas in this report. These terms are defined in the Glossary. It is directed 
primarily at the forestry and wildlife sectors, within which occur the majority of managed areas. Additional 
sectors are covered where appropriate. 



No attempt has been made to exclude managed areas notified after 1990 from the WCMC Assessment because 
this would not affect the analysis significantly. The number of records of sites established post-1990 is only 
119, which is less than 0.5% of all the sites recorded on the WCMC database as having been established prior 
to 1990. 

1.2.2 Data collection 

Forestry sector Prior to this assessment, WCMC information on managed areas in the forestry sector had 
been patchy, with good coverage of a few countries and scant or no data for the majority. Managed areas in 
the forestry sector are used predominantly for production purposes and, therefore, are of secondary interest to 
WCMC, as compared to those areas under protection and conservation management regimes. 

For the purpose of this study, it was necessary for WCMC to contact forest administrations in every tropical 
country, often for the first time. Administrations were asked for statistics and maps of the forest estate, 
information relating to its management and copies of relevant legislation. A standard letter was drafted in 
consultation with colleagues in the lUCN Forest Conservation Programme and the FAO Assessment, translated 
into French and Spanish, and circulated to all forest administrations using the list oi Heads of National Forestry, 
Wildlife and Parks Administrations maintained by the FAO. Attached to the letter were two tables which these 
authorities were requested to fill in. The English version of the standard letter and tables is shown in Annex 
1.2. 

Letters to forest administrations in 158 tropical and non-tropical developing countries (or geopolitical units) were 
sent out during the second quarter of 1990. Responses were received initially from 20% of countries, but, 
following reminder letters being sent in December, the response rate had increased to 40% by April 1991. As 
previously mentioned (Section 1.1.4), the scojje of the project was reduced to 100 tropical countries following 
changes made to the FAO Assessment in niid-1991, and WCMC's efforts in the latter part of 1991 and early 
1992 concentrated on soliciting responses outstanding from among these tropical coimtries. By the end of this 
project, 52% of tropical countries had responded (Table 1.1). The level of response was remakably even, 
ranging from 48 % in Tropical Latin America to 56 % in Tropical Africa. A number of reasons may account 
for this relatively disappointing level of response. First, many of the countries in this assessment have 
extremely meagre financial resources dedicated to forestry and wildlife activities, and staff may not have been 
available to compile the information requested. Secondly, as a related issue, it is likely that the detailed 
information on individual sites, maps etc. may not be available, even within the countries themselves. This 
indicates the importance of supporting and building information gathering and management capacity within 
countries. 

Information obtained directly from forest administrations was supplemented with data gathered under the FAO 
Assessment, particularly in the case of those which did not respond to WCMC's requests. In the absence of 
any recent data, and as a last resort, statistics were used from the Tropical Forest Resources Assessment 1980 
(FAO, 1981) with respect to quantifying the extent of natural forest under production. Additional information 
on the forestry sector was obtained from the libraries of the FAO Forest Department, Rome and the Oxford 
Forestry Institute. Copies of much of the forest legislation relevant to managed areas were obtained from the 
FAO Forest Resources Division. 

Wildlife sector WCMC already holds an extensive body of information on conservation areas within the 
wildlife sector. This information has been gathered over many years as a result of direct contact with the 
appropriate government and other agencies responsible for their management. It is contmuously being updated 
as existing areas are upgraded in their conservation status or enlarged, and as new ones are created. 

Relevant agencies within all tropical countries were contacted at some stage during the WCMC Assessment for 
their latest lists and maps of conservation areas, or asked to check and ujKlate such material generated from the 
WCMC Protected Areas Database and Biodiversity Map Library. Much of this information-gathering exercise 
was conducted luder the auspices of compiling Proteaed areas of a world: a review of national systems (lUCN, 
1992), with relevant data feeding directly into the WCMC Assessment. As explained in Section 1.1.3, these 
two projects complement each other. 



Table 1.1 Level of response from forest administrations in tropical countries to requests for information 

on managed areas initially made in March-June 1990. At least two reminders were sent over 
the subsequent two years to those administrations which did not respond. 

REGION No. countries No. countries Response 

responding level 



TROPICAL ASIA & PACIFIC 

South Asia 7 3 43% 

Continental South East Asia 5 2 40% 

Insular South East Asia 5 4 80% 

Oceania 5 2 40% 

Subtotal 22 11 50% 

TROPICAL AFRICA 

West Sahelian Africa 9 3 33% 

East Sahelian Africa 6 4 67% 

West Africa 8 6 75% 

Central Africa 7 2 28% 

Tropical Southern Africa ( + Madagascar) 11 8 73 % 

Subtotal 41 23 56% 

TROPICAL LATIN AMERICA 

Central America (+ Mexico) 8 3 38% 

Caribbean 25 14 56% 

South America 10 21 40% 

Subtotal 43 21 48% 

TOTAL 106 55 52% 



Maps Where possible, maps of managed areas were obtained from the relevant government authorities within 
the forestry, wildlife and any other sectors in order to digitise their boimdaries using a Geographic Information 
System. In addition, the map libraries of the University of Cambridge and Oxford Forestry Institute were 
searched for maps of managed areas. Maps were also obtained from the Natural Resources Institute of the 
Overseas Development Administration (ODNRI) and Hunting Technical Services, UK. 

1.2.3 Data management 

WCMC manages its information on conservation areas in the following ways: 

■ hard copies of bibliographic material (books, papers, reports, legislation etc), correspondence with raw 
data, and maps are filed on a geographic basis; 

■ relevant data are extracted from this raw material and stored electronically in the WCMC Protected 
Areas Database or, in the case of maps, digitised using a Geographic Information System and stored 
within the WCMC Biodiversity Map Library; and 

■ texts describing national conservation area networks, their legal and administrative basis, are compiled 
using a standard format and stored electronically. (Texts describing individual conservation areas are 
also compiled, and stored in the same way, but these are not relevant to this study.) 

For purposes of the WCMC Assessment, the WCMC Protected Areas Database was expanded to include other 
managed areas, notably forest reserves. A number of modifications were made to the database to enable the 
function of forest reserves to be recorded as production, protection or conservation, in line with the 
classification used by FAO (1990). This database currently comprises some 31,000 records, of which some 
9,136 are relevant to the WCMC Assessment.. An example of the type of output which can be generated from 
the Protected Areas Database are the lists of conservation areas presented in Annex X.2 of respective 
subregional chapters within Part I of this report. 

Summary statistics of the forest estate provided by respective forest administrations in Table 1 of Aimex 1.2 
at the request of WCMC were entered into a series of worksheets within a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet. Output 
from this database appears as Annex X. 1 of respective subregional chapters. 

Maps of managed areas were digitised using mainly ARC.INFO but also ATLAS*GIS software, in the latter 
stages of the project. Digital files are stored within the WCMC Biodiversity Map Library. 

1.2.4 Analysis and review of information 

This is described below for each part of the report. Limitations with the data are discussed in italics as 
appropriate. 

PARTI 

The way in which data are generated, analysed and presented is described below for each section of the 
subregional chapters. 

X.l Historical Perspective Reviews the way in which nature conservation has evolved through legal and 
administrative regimes, based on informaton contained in Protected areas of the world: a review of 
national systems (lUCN, 1992). 



X.2 Nature Conservation Policy and L^islation Reviews current nature conservation policy and legislation 
within forestry, wildlife and other sectors, based on information contained in Protected areas of the world: 
a review of national systems (lUCN, 1992). Table X.l has been compiled by extracting the relevant data 
from the Annex of legal designations in lUCN (1992). The sector to which individual pieces of legislation 
apply (i.e. forestry, wildlife or additional) is indicated, together with management objectives for each 
designation as legislated or laid down in policies. 

X.3 Managed Areas Administration Reviews current administration within forest, wildlife and other 
additional sectors based on information in Protected areas of the world: a review of national systems 
(lUCN, 1992). 

X.4 Managed Areas Status Data on managed areas originates from two databases, namely the WCMC 
Protected Areas Database (Annex X.l), and the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet with the responses from forest 
administrations (Annex X.2). 

Data in Table X.l, showing the extent of natural forest land under production, protection and 
conservation, are derived directly from Annex X.2. It should be noted that, whereas statistics for 
individual protection and conservation forests were collected as part of the WCMC Assessment, this was 
not extended to production forests. Data presented in Annex X.2 are often subject to a number of 
limitations, due to the way in which statistics are compiled nationally, as follows: 

■ It is not always possible to distinguish between the different forest origins. For example, data for 
natural forest may occasionally include plantation forest. 

■ // is frequently difficult to differentiate between protection and conservation forest as countries do not 
necessarily follow the classification system drawn up by FAO (1990). In the final analysis, this does 
not affect the WCMC Assessment as both protection and conservation forest are treated similarly as 
conservation areas. 

■ It is not always known whether or not raw data for proteaion and conservation forest , as supplied by 
forest administrations, include conservation areas managed by the wildlife sector. Where this is blown 
to be the case, the raw data have been modified by subtraaing the contribution of the wildlife sector. 

These and other deficiencies reflect the availability of national statistics, or the way in which they are 
compiled, and are noted at the foot of the tables in Annex X.2. 

Coverage The WCMC Protected Areas Database was used to generate statistics for analysing the 
coverage of national conservation area networks in terms of total and partial protection, and assessing the 
relative contribution of the forestry, wildlife and additional sectors. These statistics are presented in Table 
X.3. The analysis extends to all existing and proposed conservation areas, irrespective of their size, but 
managed areas under productive regimes are excluded. It does not extend to pnvately-owned and managed 
reserves. Coverage by national conservation area networks is expressed as a jjercentage of the total area 
of a country, and examined in relation to the widely-accepted target of 10%. This is considered to be a 
realistic goal for many countries, taking into account other demands on land for economic development 
and subsistence needs. Coverage expressed as a percentage of total area can be misleading, however, in 
the case of the countries with widely scattered islands and having a marine component that is well 
represented within the conservation area network. This discrepancy arises because total area accounts for 
land and inland water bodies only, and not territorial waters. 

The representativeness of conservation area networks is examined with respect to major habitats, and gaps 
identified from other studies are highlighted. Particular attention is given to whether or not plans based 
on systematic surveys have been formulated to ensure that the full range of a country's biological diversity 
is represented within its conservation area network. 



Integrity Mean size and the frequency distribution of conservation area sizes are used as a measure of 
the integrity of conservation area networks (Table X.4). This, by necessity, is based only on data where 
the extent of individual conservation areas is known. Thus, agreggated data that may be included in Table 
X.2, Table X.3 or Annex X.2 will not appear. Given that, in effect, conservation areas have been 
increasingly established as islands in a sea of humanity, they should be theoretically as large as possible 
to maximise the degree to which their contents retain their integrity (Soule, 1983). Thus, the effectiveness 
of a conservation areas network in maintaining biological diversity will partly be a function of the size of 
its constituent units. For example, conservation areas need to be large enough to support minimum viable 
populations of key species. These should consist of at least 500 genetically effective individuals, or a total 
population of about 1,000 individuals including Juveniles and other non-breeders (Soul^, 1986). The 
optimal size of a conservation area will vary with respect to the key species under protection, but the many 
sites that contain populations of threatened large mammals need to extend over several tens or hundreds 
of thousands of hectares, respectively, for ungulates or carnivores at the top of their food chains. 

The effectiveness with which conservation areas are managed is assessed qualitatively, based largely upon 
information from Proteaed areas of the world: a review of national systems (lUCN, 1992). 

X.5 Future Prospects Official proposals to expand conservation area networks are reviewed, based on 
statistics presented in Table X.3. The many new conservation areas recommended by authorities other 
than the responsible management agencies, such as consultants representing non-governmental 
organisations and aid agencies, are excluded from the analysis. Other national initiatives to strengthen 
networks through specific projects and programmes, to overcome economic constraints through fiinding 
mechanisms, and to improve management through new approaches are reviewed. Participation in 
international and regional conventions and programmes, particularly with respect to the Convention 
concerning the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention), the Convention on 
Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) and the Unesco 
Man and the Biosphere Programme is reviewed (Table X.5), together with attempts between adjacent 
countries to manage conservation areas under cooperative agreements. 

X.6 Priorities for Action These are necessarily broad and may not be comprehensive, but the priorities 
identified in this report are summaried in Table X.6. 



PARTH 

The analyses in Part II are essentially similar to those described above for Part I, but carried out at the regional 
and global level, rather than subregional level. This is intended to summarise the major trends across each of 
the three continental regions, and at a global level. It is by necessity a summary document dealing with 
generalisations, and should be read in conjunction with appropriate sub-regional reports, where much greater 
detail and elaboration is provided. 



PARTm 

This part of the report consists entirely of maps of managed areas of each country generated from the WCMC 
Biodiversity Map Library. Maps show the boundaries of existing managed areas, where known, or their centre 
points if only their geographic coordinates are known. Proposed managed areas are not mapped. Different 
hatching patterns are used to distinguish between the following: 

■ managed areas under production and conservation areas within the forestry sector. 

■ conservation areas within the forestry sector and those within the wildlife and any other additional 
sectors. 

Conservation areas are numbered on the maps; these numbers correspond to the numbers in the respective lists 
for each country in Annex X.2 of the subregional reports. Not all conservation areas are mapped because the 

8 



locations of some sites are not known. This is evident by comparing the numbers in Annex X.2 with those in 
the maps. 

Managed areas under production are mapped, if the information is available, but they are not individually named 
by cross-referencing to the list in Annex X.2 as in the case of conservation areas. 

The source material from which the maps are derived is given at the beginning of Part III on a country-by- 
country basis. 

Maps are based on the best available information. Sometimes this may be ten or more years old, as in the case 
of Atlas of Forest Resources of India published by the Government of India in 1976. This was used as the 
source for digitising India 's forest reserves. In this particular case, there has been relatively little change (4%) 
in the total area of reserved forests , from 39.8 million ha in 1976 (Government of India, 1984) to 41.5 million 
ha in 1991 (Forest Survey of Iruiia, 1992), and boundaries of many forest reserves may not have changed 
significantly. Sometimes it has been possible to obtain copies of digital files, for example, most South American 
countries. In the case of Indonesia, a full set of film positives of Map 9 Land Cover and Suggested Forest 
Zoning, The Land Resources of Indonesia - A National Overview - Atlas was obtained fi-om the Natural 
Resources Institute of the Overseas Development Administration, but unfortunately these could not be digitised 
for technical reasons. Sources used in the production of maps are given at the beginning of Part III. 



REFERENCES 

FAO (1981). Forest resources of Tropical Africa, Tropical America and Tropical Asia: regional synthesis and 

country briefs. 4 volumes. FAO/UNEP Tropical Forest Resources Assessment Project, Rome. 
FAO (1990). Guidelines for assessment. July 1990. Forest Resources Assessment 1990. FAO, Rome. 
FAO (1992). The forest resources of the tropical zone by main ecological regions. Forest Resources 

Assessment 1990 Project. Report presented at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and 

Development, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. 
Forest Survey of India (1992). The state of forest report 1991. Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun. 89 pp. 
Government of India (1984). India's forests 1984. Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. 114 pp. 
lUCN (1992). Proteaed areas of the world: a review of national systems. 4 volumes. Prepared by the 

World Conservation Monitoring Centre. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 
Shanna, M.K. (1986a). Eco-floristic zone and vegetation maps of tropical continental Asia. Institut de 

la Carte Internationale de la Vegetation, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. 
Sharma, M.K. (1986b). Eco-floristic zones of Africa. Institut de la Carte Internationale de la V6g6tation, 

Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. 
Soule, M.E. (1983). Applications of genetics and population biology: the what, where and how of nature 

reserves. In: Conservation, Science and Society. Unesco-UNEP. Pp. 252-264. 
Soule, M.E. (Ed.) (1986). Viable populations for conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 

UK. P. 189. 



10 



Annex 1.1 List of countries included within the WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 

AFRICA (TROPICAL) 



West Sahelian Africa 

Burkina 

Cape Verde 

Chad 

Gambia 

Guinea-Bissau 

Mali 

Mauritania 

Niger 

Senegal 

East Sahelian Africa 

Djibouti 

Ethiopia 

Kenya 

Somalia 

Sudan 

Uganda 



West Africa 

Benin 

Cote d'lvoire 

Ghana 

Guinea 

Liberia 

Nigeria 

Sierra Leone 

Togo 



Central Africa 

Cameroon 

Central African Republic 

Congo 

Equatorial Guinea 

Gabon 

Sao Tome & Principe 

Zaire 



Tropical Southern Africa 

Angola 

Botswana 

Burundi 

Malawi 

Mozambique 

Nanubia 

Rwanda 

Tanzania 

Zambia 

Zimbabwe 

Insular Africa 

Madagascar 



Central America and Mexico 

Belize 
Costa Rica 
El Salvador 
Guatemala 
Honduras 
Mexico 
Nicaragua 
Panama 

Caribbean 

Anguilla 

Antigua and Barbuda 

Aniba 

Bahamas 

Barbados 

Bermuda 

British Virgin Islands 

Cayman Islands 

Cuba 

Dominica 

Dominican Republic 

Grenada 



LATIN AMERICA (TROPICAL) 



Guadeloupe 

Haiti 

Jamaica 

Martinique 

Montserrat 

Netheriands Antilles 

Puerto Rico 

Saint Lucia 

Saint Vincent &. the 

Grenadines 
Saint Christopher & 

Nevis 

Trinidad & Tobago 
Turks & Caicos Islands 
US Virgin Islands 



Tropical South America 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

French Guiana 

Guyana 

Paraguay 

Peni 

Suriname 

Venezuela 



South Asia 

Bangladesh 

Bhutan 

India 

Maldives 

Nepal 

Pakistan 

Sri Lanka 

Continental South East Asia 

Cambodia 
LaoPDR 



ASIA & PACmC (TROPICAL) 



Myanmar 
Thailand 
Viet Nam 

Insular South East Asia 

Brunei Darussalam 

Indonesia 

Malaysia 

Philippines 

Singapore 



Oceania 

Fiji* 

New Caledonia' 

Papua New Guinea* 

Solomon Islands" 

Vanuatu* 

"Excluded from FAO Forest Resources 
Assessment 1990. 



11 



Annex 1.2 Letter to heads of all forest administrations in developing countries 

Dear 

FAQ Forest Resources Assessment 1990 

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in cooperation with the lUCN Tropical Forest Programme, is currently gathering information 
on protected and managed forests in tropical/developing countries for incorporation into the Forest Resourees Assessment 1990 being 
implemented by FAO under the framework of the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. 

The last such survey undertaken by FAO was in 1980, in response to concern about the depletion and degradation of tropical forests and 
woodlands throughout the world. That assessment covered 76 tropical countries and provided a set of quantitative estimates on forest 
resourees and deforestation rates. The fmdings were instrumental in mobilising global support for the Tropical Forestry Action Plan, the 
aim of which is to reverse the process of deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics. 

As you are aware, FAO is carrying out a further assessment, working to a baseline of 1990. In the new assessment explicit emphasis will 
be given to reviewing the service functions of forests, includmg eorironmeotal protectioa and nature conservation. It is necessary, 
therefore, to examine the extent to which tropical forests and woodlands have been assigned a conservation role through their protection 
as national paries, wildlife sanctuaries and the like, or as certain categories of forest reserve. WCMC is working closely with FAO in 
preparing this part of the Assessment, with the support of the Overseas Development Administration of the UK. 

Information is needed on the forest reserve system within your country. It would be very much appreciated if the following details could 
be provided by the end of May 1990: 

1 . statistical data summarising the extent of the forest reserve network as shown in Table 1 . 

2. a map (Scale 1:1 million is preferred, complete with projection - e.g. Mercator - and latitude and 
longitude registration marks) showing the distribution of the forest reserve network, with all forests 
reserved for protection or conservation purposes (e.g. protection of watersheds and water catchments, 
nature conservation) named and their boundaries marked; 

3 . a register of protection and conservation forests to be cross-referenced to the above map (2), with details 
of size, date of notification etc. as shown in Table 2. 

In addition, it would be helpful if you could also provide the following: 

4. copies of forestry legislation and policy relevant to the general establishment of forest reserves (but copies of 
legislation dealing with the notification of individual reserves is not needed); 

5. precise definitions of the different categories of forest reserves, if not covered by the above (4); 

6. details of recently introduced or proposed conservation measures within the forestry sector (e.g. bans on 
logging above specified altitudes or gradients, total bans on logging or raw log exports); and 

7. a copy of the forest department annual report. It would be most helpful if WCMC could be put on your 
department's mailing list for future issues. 

Your help is greatly appreciated and if there is any way in which we might be able to reciprocate with information, please do not 
hesitate to contact us. 

Yours sincerely 



WCMC Tropical Managed Areas Assessment 1990 



12 



Table 1 National forest reserve network - sununary information 



Please complete the table below in the manner illustrated by the example, or supply an official listing 
annotated as appropriate with the information requested. Any policies relevant to the protection of forests 
should be entered as a footnote to the table as shown below. 

For the purposes of the FAO Forest Resources Assessment 1990, forest fimction is classified according 
to the following definitions: 

Production forests - areas which support sustained production of wood. 

Protection forests - areas, other than conservation forests, which in practice cannot support sustained 
wood production because the terrain is unsuitable (eg too steep or rugged, subject to flooding). 

Conservation forests - areas designated for conservation. 



NAME OF COUNTRY/STATE: e.g. Gondwanaland 
MONTH/YEAR OF REFERENCE: 



e.g. December 1989 



National 


Forest Function 


No. 


Area 


designation 


Prod. Prot. Cons. 


reserves 


(ha) 


-Class 








Forest Reserves 




126 


3,783,417 


- Protection Forests 


+ 


28 


999,777 


- Commercial Forests"^ 


+ 


38 


2,674,576 


- Amenity Forests 


+ 


11 


20,767 


- Virgin Jungle Reserves 


+ 


49 


88,306 



' No logging permitted above 2,000m: this amounts to an area of c. 198,000 ha. 
^ No logging permitted in the coastal zone: this amounts to an area of c. 143,000 ha 



13 



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GLOSSARY 

This highly selective glossary provides definitions of some of the less familiar or more technical terms used in 
this report. 



Alienable forest land Forest land available for transfer to other forms of land use (FAO, 1990). 

Conservation forest Areas within the forestry sector designated for conservation by law or other regulations 
(FAO, 1990). 

Conserration area Defined as for protected area. [The term conservation area is used instead of protected 
area with which it is synonymous.] 

Forest land An area of land proclaimed to be forest under a Forest Act or Ordinance (FAO, 1990). 

Forest reserve Generally well-defined, surveyed, demarcated and legally constituted forest under the control 
of a forest department. All acts of felling, collection of forest produce, grazing and even trespassing are usually 
prohibited unless expressly permitted by law (FAO, 1981). 

Forestry sector That part of government responsible for the protection and management of forest land. 

Land area Refers to total area excluding the area under inland water bodies, these being major rivers and 
lakes. [Data are taken from the FAO Production Yearbook.] 

Managed area A legally designated natural area managed for production on a sustainable basis or for 
conservation purposes. The term includes conservation area and is frequently used generically when referring 
to reserves within the forestry sector that may have a production and/or conservation function. 

Natural forest Forest composed of tree species known to be indigenous to the area. Included in this definition 
are primary forest (undisturbed), disturbed primary forest associated with various intensities of selective logging, 
secondary forest resulting from logging of primary forest, logged over forest with under-planting of exotics, 
and managed forest regenerated artificially or naturally so long as this involves the renewal of essentially the 
same crop as before (FAO, 1990). 

Notified forest Forest land that is notified as reserved. N.B notified forests are usually demarcated, the 
boundaries being given in the notification. 

Plantation forest refers to forest established artificially by afforestation on lands which previously did not 
carry forest within living memory, or by reforestation of previously forested land involving the replacement of 
indigenous species by new and essentially different species or genetic varieties (FAO, 1990). 

Production forest Forest having terrain and soil conditions suitable for the production of wood and other 
products on a sustainable basis. The distance to consumption or export centres is not taken into account, which 
means that economically inaccessible forests are included in this class (FAO, 1990). 

Protected area An area of land and/or sea managed through legal or customary regimes so as to protect and 
maintain biological diversity and natural and associated cultural resources. [This defmition was agreed at the 
IV World Parks Congress on National Parks and Protected areas, Caracas, 10-12 February 1992. The term 
protected area is not used in this report, conservation area being preferred.] 

Protected forest Similar to forest reserve in so far as being notified, demarcated and under the control of a 
forest department. However, the degree of control exercised is generally of a low order and nearby villagers 
usually have rights to grazing and collection of forest produce for their own consumption (FAO, 1981). 



15 



Protection forest Areas within the forestry sector located on terrain that is too steep or rough, or subject to 
periodic or permanent inundation, which makes forest management impractical due to physical non-productivity 
(FAO, 1990). 

Total area Refers to the total area of a country, including the area under inland water bodies. [Data are taken 
from the FAO Production Yearbook.] 

Undassed forest Forest land which is publicly owned but lacks any well-defined legal status (FAO, 1981). 

Unclassified forest Forest land other than that legally reserved or that which is alienable, i.e. the rest (FAO, 
1990). 

Wildlife sector That part of government responsible for nature conservation. 



16 



Glossary of French terms 



Domaine de chasse 

Domaine forestier permanent de I'Etat 

Domaine forestier rural de I'Etat 



Hunting reserve 
Permanent state forest 
Rural state forest 



Foret de d^v^loppement commimautaire 

Foret classfe 

Foret communale 

Foret de production 

Foret de protection 

Foret prot6g6e 

Foret recr&tive 

Foret rurale 



Community development forest 
Classified forest 
Community forest 
Production forest 
Protection forest 
Protected forest 
Recreation forest 
Rural forest 



Pare international 
Pare national 
Pare presidential 
Pare regional 
Perimetre de protection 
P^rimfetre de reboisement 
Perimetre de restauration 



International park 
National park 
Presidential park 
Regional park 
Protection area 
Reforestation area 
Restoration area 



R&erve de chasse 
R&erve forestiere 
Reserve de faune 
Reserve de faune et de flore 
Reserve forestiere 
R&erve integrate 
Reserve naturelle gerfe 
Reserve naturelle int^grale 
Reserve naturelle nationale 
Reserve naturelle partielle 
Reserve naturelle 
Reserve speciale 
Reserve partielle de faune 
R&erve totale de faune 



Hunting area 
Forest reserve 
Faunal reserve 
Fauna! and floral reserve 
Forest reserve 
Strict reserve 
Managed nature reserve 
Strict nature reserve 
National nature reserve 
Partial nature reserve 
Nature reserve 
Special reserve 
Partial faunal reserve 
Total faunal reserve 



Sanctuaire 

Zone prot^gte d'exploitation de la faune 

Zone cynegetique 

Zone de chasse 

Zone d'int^ret cynegetique 

Zone tampon 



Sanctuary 

Protected 2»ne for faunal exploitation 
Sport hunting zone 
Hunting zone 
Sport hunting zone 
Buffer zone 



Glossary of Spanish terms 



Area boscosa baja protecci6n 

Area crftica 

Area de caza y pesca 

Area de manejo integral de recursos naturales 

Area de proteccidn y recuperacidn ambiental 

Area de protecci6n 

Area de protecci6n de flora y fauna silvestre y acuitica 

Area de proteccidn de recursos naturales 

Area de uso multiple 

Area nacional de recreaci6n 

Area natural linica 

Area recreativa 

Area recreativa natural 

Area silvestre 



Wooded area under protection 

Critical area 

Hunting and fishing area 

Area of integrated natural resource management 

Environmental protection and recuperation area 

Protection area 

Wild and aquatic flora and fauna protection area 

Natural resource protection area 

Multiple use area 

National recreation area 

Unique natural area 

Recreation area 

Natural recreation area 

Wildland area 



Biotopo natural y tipico 

Biotopo protegido 

Bosque de libre disponibilidad 

Bosque de produccion 

Bosque de proteccion 

Bosque de uso multiple 

Bosque especial 

Bosque nacional 

Bosque permanente de producci6n 

Bosque permanente de proteccion 

Bosque productivo 

Bosque protectivo 

Bosque protector 

Campo experimental forestal 
Coto de caza 



Natural and typical biotope 
Protected biotope 
Freely disposable forest 
Production forest 
Protection forest 
Multiple-use forest 
Special forest 
National forest 
Permanent production forest 
Permanent protection forest 
Production forest 
Protection forest 
Protection forest 

Experimental forest 
Hunting reserve 



Estaci6n biologica 
Lote boscosa 



Biological station 
Forest plot 



Manantial 

Monumento cultural 
Monumento nacional 
Monumento natural 



Water source 
Cultural monument 
National monument 
Natural monument 



Parque 

Parque forestal 
Parque hist6rico 
Parque litoral 
Parque marino nacional 
Parque municipal 
Parque nacional 
Parque nacional marino 
Parque natural 
Parque regional 
Parque urbano 

Refiigio 

Refiigio de fauna silvestre 

Refiigio de vida silvestre 



Park 

Forest park 
Historic park 
Littoral park 
Marine national park 
Municipal park 
National park 
National marine park 
Natural park 
Regional park 
Urban park 

Refuge 

Wildlife refuge 
Wildlife refuge 



Reserva 

Reserva antropologica 

Reserva biol6gica 

Reserva communal 

Reserva de fauna 

Reserva de fauna silvestre 

Reserva de la biosfera 

Reserva de producci6n de agua 

Reserva de produccidn faunistica 

Reserva de recursos marinos 

Reserva ecol6gica 

Reserva equivalente 

Reserva especial de la biosfera 

Reserva fiscal 

Reserva forestal 

Reserva forestal de asentamiento comunal 

Reserva forestal de inmovilizaci6n 

Reserva geobotanica 

Reserva indi'gena 

Reserva marina 

Reserva nacional 

Reserva nacional de recursos naturales 

Reserva nacional de vida silvestre 

Reserva nacional hidraulica 

Reserva nacional natural 

Reserva natural 

Reserva natural de vida silvestre 

Reserva natural privada 

Reserva scientifica 

Rutas y vias escenicas 

Santuario de fauna silvestre 

Santuario de fauna 

Santuario de flora 

Santuario de vida silvestre 

Santuario hist6rico 

Santuario nacional 

Sitio de patrimonio historico-cultural o arqueologico 

Via parque 

Zona de interes turistico 

Zona de repoblaci6n 

2^na de reserva para la proteccion de tortuga marina 

Zona de reserva para fauna migratoria 

2^na protectora 

Zona protectora forestal 

Zona reservada 

Zona sujeta a conservacidn ecoldgica 



Reserve 

Anthropological reserve 
Biological reserve 
Communal reserve 
Faunal reserve 
Wildlife reserve 
Biosphere reserve 
Water production reserve 
Faunal production reserve 
Marine resource reserve 
Ecological reserve 
Equivalent reserve 
Special biosphere reserve 
Fiscal reserve 
Forest reserve 
Communal forest reserve 
Closed forest reserve 
Geobotanical reserve 
Indigenous reserve 
Marine reserve 
National reserve 

National natural resource reserve 
National wildlife reserve 
National hydrological reserve 
National natural reserve 
Natural reserve 
Natural wildlife reserve 
Private natural reserve 
Scientific reserve 
Scenic routes and roads 

Wildlife sanctuary 

Faunal sanctuary 

Floral sanctuary 

Wildlife sanctuary 

Historic sanctuary 

National sanctuary 

Historic-cultural heritage or archaeological site 

Parkway 

Zone of touristic interest 

Reforestation zone 

Reserve 2»ne for sea turtle protection 

Reserve zone for migratory fauna 

Protection zone 

Protection forest zone 

Reserved zone 

Zone subject to ecological conservation 



Glossary of Portugese terms 



Area especial de interesse tunstico 
Area de prote^o ambiental 
Area indigena 

Esta^o ecol6gica 

Foresta nacional 
Foresta estadual 
Foresta municipal 

Local de interesse tunstico 

Monumento arqueol6gico o pre-hist6rico 
Monumento natural 



Area of special tourist interest 
Environmental protection area 
Indigenous area 

Ecological station 

National forest 
State forest 
Municipal forest 

Locality of touristic interest 

Archaeological or prehistoric monument 
Natural monument 



Parque de ca9a federal 
Parque de ca;a estadual 
Parque de ca;a municipal 
Parque nacional 
Parque estadual 
Parque indigena 
Parque municipal 

Reserva biol6gica 

Reserva biol6gica nacional 

Reserva biol6gica estadual 

Reserva biol6gica municipal 

Reserva ecoldgica 

Reserva indigena 

Reserva particular do patrimonio natural 



Federal hunting park 
State hunting park 
Municipal hunting park 
National park 
State park 
Indigenous park 
Municipal park 

Biological reserve 

National biological reserve 

State biological reserve 

Municipal biological reserve 

Ecological reserve 

Indigenous reserve 

Natural heritage private reserve 



PARTI 



SUBREGIONAL REVIEWS 



6 WEST SAHELIAN AFRICA 



6 WEST SAHELIAN AFRICA 



Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal 



6.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

Archaeological records indicate that from about 8000 BC until about 2,500 BC the subregion enjoyed a much 
more humid climate than exists today. The first evidence of agriculture occurs around 8000 BC. From about 
4000 BC pastoralists established the main elements of existing pastoral production. By the standards of the 
time, the Sahel was both populous and prosperous. Until the 1890s Sahelian agriculture and pastoralism 
remained virtually unchanged; its historical impact on the environment is immeasurable, but the negative effects 
of shifting cultivation, bush fires, charcoal production and grazing of the pre-colonial era seem insignificant 
when set against the environmental degradation of the last 100 years (Cross, 1990). 

Protection of nature in the West Sahel has a long history. Before the colonial period land rights were essentially 
self-determining. Individual communities allocated land, under the guidance of village elders, according to 
family needs and the land's agricultural or pastoral potential, rather than being appropriated by individuals. 

Over-exploitation was limited due to various factors. Low levels of population enabled fallow periods to extend 
to 10 years or more. Sanctuaries of sacred woods were respected and fruit trees (karit^, ner6, baobab) were 
protected. Relatively secret magic-fetish sects imposed regulations concerning hunting. Although hunting 
permits did not exist, animals wsre not killed without permission having first been received from the village 
chief at a public ceremony. Contravention of these regulations could lead to heavy penalties, even to offenders 
being sold as slaves. 

With the imposition of colonial rule, this traditional system of land tenure changed to a hierarchical one, with 
political and economic decision-making being invested in non-Africans, or their appointees (Cross, 1990). 

Protection of nature within the subregion this century is still strongly influenced by the countries' colonial 
histories. The subregion comprises six francophone countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger 
and Senegal), and the Gambia and Cape Verde (previously British and Portuguese colonies, respectively). 



6.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

Legal provisions for the establishment of protected areas have been passed in all countries within the region 
since their independence, with the exception of Cape Verde. These legal provisions are summarised in Table 
6. 1 and reviewed below. 

6.2.1 Forestry Sector 

Forest |X)licy and forest law in colonial Africa were based on experience from continental Europe. In the 
francophone counties within the subregion, forest policy and law were derived directly from France and 
France's long experience of temperate forestry. In the British colony of the Gambia, the early administrators 
adopted the pattern of reservation of forest lands applied in British India, with the legal establishment of a 
permanent forest estate, the boundaries and use of which could only be amended by the highest authority in the 
land. 

Policy Information concerning current forest policy is only available for the Gambia and Chad. In the Gambia, 
main objectives of forest policy are: to reserve and maintain a national forest resource capable of protecting 
natural ecosystems and providing an adequate supply of wood and other forest products for the rural population; 
to maintain a Forestry Service staffed with trained personnel; to administer the forest resources; and to foster 
conservation awareness amongst the Gambian people. In Chad, conservation and management of classified 
forests is included in the 1976 Manifesto of N'Djamena. 

222 



L^islation passed during the colonial period, relating to countries within the subregion, includes two decrees 
relevant to managed areas. These comprise a decree establishing the forestry regime in French Equatorial 
Africa (which included Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Gabon), and a decree of 4 July 193S 
established the forestry regime in French West Africa (which comprised Benin, Cote d'lvoire, Guinea, Mali 
and Senegal). 

The original French forestry legislation was based on the principle of Roman legislation. According to this, 
unoccupied land, where existence of written ownership documents could not be proved, belonged to the state. 
All forest lands were thus declared state property, although local populations exercised many rights of use. 
Contradiction between the oral customary law and these written regulations led to a general reluctance of local 
people to accept the delineation of reserved forests. 

Categories established in common throughout francophone countries in the subregion were classified forest and 
protected forest. Since independence, all these countries have promulgated new forestry law, based on the 
earlier French legislation. Forest land is still considered to be state property, and the terms of classified forest 
(gazetted areas in which customary rights of use are permitted) and protected forest (areas not gazetted in which, 
generally, all felling is prohibited) continue to be used. 

In Chad, where separate wildlife law has not been promulgated, classified forests are subdivided into strict 
nature reserves, national parks and other designations, following those defined in the African Convention of 
1968. In both Chad and Mauritania, protection forests include all areas on slopes greater than 35°. 

In Guinea-Bissau, previously a Portuguese territory, current forest legislation is the 1963 Regulamento Florestal. 
Forestry law in the Gambia reflects previous British administration, which often recognised the claims of local 
]>opulations to forest ownership. 

6.2.2 Wildlife Sector 

Policy Information on wildlife policy in Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal is not 
available. 

In both the countries (Chad and the Gambia) for which information is available, recognition is given of the 
importance of the countries' flora and fauna, and the importance of conservation areas in helping to maintain 
these. 

In Chad, the 1976 Manifesto of N'Djamena reflects the country's awareness of the cultural, scientific and 
economic importance of its natural resources and wildlife. Steps to be taken to ensure the preservation of its 
natural heritage are listed, including conservation and management of national parks, faunal reserves, classified 
forests and other natural reserves. It is also stated in the manifesto that the country relies on assistance from 
other countries and international organisations with nature conservation. 

In the Gambia, the government's commitment to the conservation of flora and fauna, including the setting aside 
of protected natural habitats, is stated in the Banjul declaration of 1977. A national conservation strategy is 
under preparation in Guinea-Bissau, in collaboration with lUCN, with particular attention being paid to coastal 
zone management and the development of a protected areas network. 

Legislation The first piece of wildlife legislation within the subregion was the Wild Animals (Birds and Fish) 
Preservation Act of 1916 in the Gambia. A decree of 18 November 1947 controlled hunting in all French 
overseas territories. Under French colonial law, the Decree of 10 March 1925 provided for the establishment 
of refuge parks in French West Africa. Wildlife legislation has been promulgated in Burkina Faso, the Gambia, 
Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. Present nature conservation legislation in the subregion 
provides for the establishment of national parks, strict nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, hunting reserves 
and sport hunting reserves. Definitions of these designations are similar for all countries in the subregion, and 
follow those given in the African Convention of 1968. The highest degree of protection is afforded to strict 
nature reserves, where access is permitted only for management purposes and scientific research. National 
parks are open to visitors, but residence is not permitted. 



223 



In Guinea-Bissau, there is as yet no comprehensive protected areas legislation. 
6.2.3 Other Sectors 
Not applicable 

6.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 

The management authority for each category of protected area is listed in Table 6.1. Categories are listed 
according to the language used in the original legislation. A glossary of terms (French, Portuguese and Spanish) 
is given in Part I. 

6.3.1 Forestry Sector 

Administration of forestry is the responsibility of forest departments in the respective countries (Table 6.1). 
In general, management is the responsibility of respective administrative districts, each under a Divisional Forest 
Officer. 

6.3.2 Wildlife Sector 

Conservation areas have traditionally been managed under a single administrative organisation within the forest 
departments of the respective countries within the subregion (Table 6.1). Although information concerning this 
is limited, this situation still appears to hold true. 

6.3.3 Additional Sectors 
No information 

6.3.4 Non-GoTemmental Organisations 

In general, non-governmental organisations are not involved directly in protected areas administration. An 
exception is Takieta Forest Reserve in Niger, where management has been passed to SOS Sahel, an 
environmental charity which supports community action that focuses on the conservation of natural resources 
and sustainable agricultural production. 



6.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 

The managed areas system is mapped for each country within the subregion in Fig 6. 1-9 (Part III). Details of 
individual conservation areas are given in Annex 6. 1 which serves as a key to the maps. 

6.4.1 Forestry Sector 

Coverage Data for the subregion concerning the forestry sector are incomplete, hence available data 
underestimate the role played by the forestry sector. Information concerning the extent of legally constituted 
forest reserves by forest origin and forest function, for each country, is given in Annex 6.2. Managed areas 
within the forestry sector account for a minimum 4.3% of the total area of the West Sahel (Table 6.2). 

6.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry and Wildlife Sectors 

Coverage There are some 271 legally designated conservation areas in the region covering a total area of 39.8 
million ha or 7.4% of the region (Table 6.3). Approximately 21 of these conservation areas are under total 
protection, covering 11.8 million ha or 2.2% of the subregion. The rest are partially protected. The forestry 
sector is directly responsible for some 212 conservation areas, covering a total area of 18,263, 307ha or 3.4% 
of the region. 

224 



Representativeness of the protected areas system within the region varies widely. The extremes are Senegal, 
with an extensive, well-planned system of protected areas which is generally considered to be adequate, and 
Cap)e Verde, which still has no protected areas. 

Burkina Faso, Niger and Chad are similar in that each country has one enormous reserve in the Sahel zone, 
covering at least 5 % of the country, and a considerably greater percentage of each country's protected areas 
system. These systems are, therefore, relatively limited in the degree to which they represent each country's 
variety of habitats. Air et T6n6r6 National Nature Reserve in Niger is the largest protected area in Africa under 
active management, and covers over 6 % of the country. Similarly, Chad has a huge reserve, Ouadi Rime-Ouadi 
Achim Faunal Reserve, which occupies over 6% of the country. In Burkina Faso, the Sahel Partial Faunal 
Reserve covers 5 % of the extreme north of the country, a region of relatively little conservation interest. In 
the south of the country there are a few smaller reserves, but virtually none of the central part of the country 
is represented. In contrast, Mali and Mauritania, although having little area protected, do have well located 
protected areas of particular importance to migratory birds. Mah has three small Ramsar sites in the Inner 
Niger Delta, whilst in Mauritania, Ramsar sites are situated along the coast. Protected areas in Guinea-Bissau 
are distributed throughout the country, but in reality exist only on paper. The Gambia has only a small area 
protected for conservation. 

Ecofloristic zone analysis [pending data from FAO] 

Integrity Data in Table 6.4 indicate that, with the exception of the Gambia, conservation areas under the 
wildlife sector tend to be large. Mean size of totally protected areas is similar to that of partially protected 
areas. Mean size of conservation areas within the forestry sector tend to be far smaller throughout the 
subregion. 

Effectiveness War or armed violence has seriously disrupted or destroyed protected areas management in Chad. 
In general, conservation areas within the region are largely ineffective. Apart from inadequate representation 
of the subregion's biological diversity within existing conservation area networks, conservation efforts are 
limited by: weaknesses in policy and legislation; inadequate institutional suppwrt and ineffective (or non-existent) 
management. Management plans for protected areas within the region, do not, in general, exist. Funds have 
not been sufficient to allow for effective management in any of the countries within the subregion apart from 
the Gambia and Senegal. Senegal has taken a very firm line on poaching, in spite of which it still remains a 
problem. Management of protected areas in the Gambia is, in general, good. In Chad, two decades of 
desertification and fighting have led both to serious degradation of the land, and to a virtual absence of any 
information concerning the status of the protected areas. 

Enforcement is often handicapped by the absence of clearly-demarcated boundaries that are easily recognisable 
on the ground. Encroachment by people is ubiquitous, few conservation areas being free of this problem. 

Desertification in the subregion has seriously hampered attempts to establish effective managed areas (Cross, 
1990; lUCN, 1989). 

6.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 

Data in Table 6.2 suggest that the contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation is negligible (1.1%) 
in terms of the total area of the subregion under protection and conservation forest. It should be noted that data 
is incomplete, and the contribution of the forestry sector to protection and conservation is presumably much 
higher than suggested by these statistics. Over 54 % of the conservation area network falls within the domain 
of the wildlife sector (Table 6.3). 

Classified forests in francophone countries were originally established as conservation forests, mostly in the 
1930s, 1940s and 1950s. However, comments from some administrative bodies imply that these classified 
forests now fulfil a productive function; hence, they appear in Table 6.2 under the heading of production rather 
than conservation or protection forests. In general, lists of forest reserves serving a conservation purpose within 
the subregion were not available; hence, the forestry sector appears to play a negligible role in conservation in 
the subregion. 

225 



The role played by protected forests in francophone countries should also be considered. They comprise 
virtually all state land lying outside individually gazetted areas, with regulations such that they serve a 
conservation purpose. Unfortunately, estimates of the area covered by these protected forests are in no instance 
available. 



6.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 

6.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 

Official proposals to expand the conservation area network are minimal. They total some 2.5 million ha or 
0.5% of the total area of the subregion (Table 6.3). Proposals exist for the protected areas systems to be 
expanded in most countries in the region. Proposals exist for the establishment of a substantial protected areas 
system in Guinea-Bissau. 

6.5.2 Other National Initiatives 
Strengthening networks 

No information 

Overcoming Economic Constraints Funding is a major factor which limits the effective management of 
conservation areas throughout the subregion, although the situation is less severe in Senegal and the Gambia. 
In these countries, conservation areas are playing an increasingly important role in the developing tourism 
industries. 

Improving Management 

6.5.3 International Initiatives 

Conventions and Programmes All countries within the subregion participate in one or more international 
conventions and programmes concerned with conservation areas (Table 6.5). All countries except Chad and 
Burkina Faso have ratified or accepted the Convention Concerning the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 
(World Heritage Convention). Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal have properties inscribed on the World 
Heritage list. All countries except Cape Verde and the Gambia have acceded to or ratified the Convention on 
Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention). All countries 
except Cape Verde are party to the African Convention 1968. Biosphere reserves have been designated in 
Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal. 

Senegal and Burkina Faso are the only two African countries to have signed the Convention on the Conservation 
of Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) which is of particular importance to migratory birds. 

Cooperative Agreements The Lake Chad Basin Commission, uniting representatives of four countries (Chad, 
Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria) bordering the lake, was established in 1964, although no information is available 
concerning its relevance to conservation areas. Chad has undertaken bilateral negotiations with the Central 
African Republic (Central Africa sub-region) and the Sudan (East Sahelian sub-region). Again, information is 
not available as to whether these negotiations concern conservation areas. 

A Conseil d'Entente with Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote d'lvoire and Togo provides an administrative structure for 
cooperation between neighbouring countries. A proposal to set up a single authority to manage the three 
contiguous "W" national parks in Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger, totalling over 1 million ha, and to raise funds 
for its operation, is being considered. 



226 



6.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 

Priorities for conservation action in the subregion were identified in the now dated lUCN Systems review of the 
Afrotropical Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986), the subsequent Action Strategy (lUCN, 1987), and 
in The lUCN Sahel Studies 1989. 

Priorities have been reviewed more recently (lUCN, 1992) for the IVth World Congress on National Parks and 
Protected Areas. These are generalised, recognising that translation of priorities into action will vary according 
to national conservation objectives, history and political will. They provide a foundation to the more specific 
priorities identified in this report and summarised in Table 6.6. The Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Aaion 
on UNCED Negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution to the African Position (Anon, 1191), concerning 
environmental degradation within the Sahel, was drawn up for UNCED 1992, following two consultative 
meetings of 22 Sudano-Sahelian countries, which included participants from all countries within the subregion. 
The report highlights the link between poverty and mismanagement of natural resources, particularly exploitation 
of marginal lands and deforestation. Recommendations include action to be taken at both the international and 
African level. 

In conclusion, progress in the subregion has been seriously hampered by environmental conditions (i.e. 
drought), civil unrest, and the demand on resources by rapidly growing human populations. Although mostly 
aware of the need for conservation area networks, well-funded institutions and up-to-date policy and legislation, 
governments in the subregion have generally not been able to ensure these are estabhshed. 



227 



REFERENCES 

Anon. (1991). Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Action on UNCED negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution 

to the African Position. Prepared by the 22 Sudano-Sahelian Countries. CILSS, UNSO, IGADD. 22 pp. 
Cross, N. (1990). The Sahel: The People's Right to Development. Minority Rights Group Report, London, 

UK. 28 pp. 
IUCN(1986). The WCN Sahel Report. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 80 pp. 
lUCN (1987). Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 56 pp. 
lUCN (1989). The WCN Sahel Studies. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 152 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Afrotropical Realm. 

lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 259 pp. 



228 



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Table 6.2 Extent of notified natural forests, classified by forest function. Units are in sq. km, 

followed by % total area. Full data, with sources, are given in Annex 6.2. 



Country Total FOREST FUNCTION 

SUBREGION Area Production Protection Conservation Total 



Cape Verde 4,030 

Chad 1,284,000 

Gambia 11,300 
Guinea-Bissau 36,120 

Mali 1,240,190 

Mauritania 1,025,520 

Niger 1,267,000 

Senegal 196,720 



WEST SAHELIAN AFRICA 

5,339,080 169,113 (3.2) 50,960 (0.9) 126,300 (0.2) 232,703 (4.3) 

? = No information 



9,764 (3.6) 


- 




192(<0.1) 




9,956 


(3.6) 


? 


? 




? 









16,300(11.4) 


50,960 


(4.0) 







197,260 


(15.4) 


107 (0.9) 







280 


(2.5) 


387 


(3.4) 


? 


? 




? 









9,600 (0.8) 


? 




1,348 


(0.1) 


10,948 


(0.9) 


? 


? 




? 









1,442 (0.1) 


? 




? 




1,442 


(0.1) 


1,900 (1.0) 


? 




10,810 


(5.5) 


12,710 


(6.5) 



232 



Table 6.3 Extent of notified and proposed conservation areas, classified by sector and national 

designation. Management categories are assigned to designations based on national 
legislation (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total 
protection with no extractive uses). Totals for proposed sites may include areas of 
properties already protected but proposed for upgrading to higher conservation status. 
Details of individual properties are given in Annex 2. N is the total number of conservation 
areas. 



COUNTRY 

Sector 

National ilesignation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



BURKINA FASO (274,200 sq. km) 



Forest Sector 



Classified Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 


P 


1 
1 


19,200 
19,200 
( 0.1) 









( 0.0) 


Wildlife Sector 
National Park 
Partial Faunal Reserve 
Sanctuary 

Total Faunal Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 


T 
P 
T 
P 


3 
4 

4 
11 


489,300 

1,855,700 



297,700 

2,642,700 

( 9.7) 


1 

2 

3 


280,000 


205,000 


485,000 
( 1.7) 


Totals 

(% total area) 




12 


2,661,900 

( 9-8) 


3 


485,000 
( 1.7) 



CAPE VERDE (4,030 sq. km) 



Wildlife Sector 

Integral Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 










( 0.0) 


1 
1 


* 
* 

( 0.0) 






( 0.0) 


1 


* 
( 0.0) 



CHAD (1,284,000 sq. km) 



Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Faunal Reserve 

National Park 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 



P 10 5,096,000 * 

P 8 11,030,000 2 164,700 

T 2 414,000 2 1,040,000 

20 16,540,000 * 4 1,204,700 

(12.9) (0.9) 



Totals 

(% total area) 



20 16,540,000 * 
( 12.9) 



1,204,700 

( 0.9) 



GAMBIA (11,300 sq. km) 



Forest Sector 
Forest Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 



40 


28,045 


7 


10,000 * 


40 


28,045 





10,000 * 




( 2.5) 




( 0.9) 



Wildlife Sector 
National Park 



18,440 



233 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Existing 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



N 


Area (ha) 




1 
1 
2 




1,000 

3,500 

4,500 

( 0.4) 


2 


14,500 * 
( 1.3) 



Nature Reserve 

Reserve 

Wetland Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

GUINEA-BISSAU (36,120 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 
Hunting Reserve 
National Park 
Protected Area 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

MALI (1,240,190 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
National Park 
Partial Faunal Reserve 
Sanctuary 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

MAURITANIA (1,025,520 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
Integral Reserve 
National Park 
Partial Faunal Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

NIGER (1,267,000 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 

National Nature Reserve 

National Park 

Partial Faunal Reserve 

Strict Nature Reserve 

Total Faunal Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 



P 

P 
P 



P 
P 
P 



P 

T 
P 

P 



1 


4 



44 



6 


6 



9 

1 
2 

1 
13 



16 



107 



18,547 
( 1.6) 

46,592 
( 4.1) 



* 



* 
0.0) 

* 
0.0) 



134,822 
134,822 
( 0.1) 



1,911,989 
350,000 

2,950,000 
400,000 

5,611,989 

( 4.5) 

5,746,811 

( 4.6) 



p 

T 

P 
P 


1 
3 
2 
3 
9 


* 
310,000 * 
1,186,000 

250,000 * 
1,746,000 * 
( 1.7) 




9 


1,746,000 * 
( 1.7) 




6 

1 
7 



456,000 * 

* 
456,000 * 
( 12.6) 


7 


456,000 * 
( 12.6) 








T 


1 


7,736,000 





T 


1 


220,000 





P 


1 


306,500 





T 


1 


1,280,500 





P 


2 


153,740 







6 


9,696,740 

( 7.6) 










( t).0) 





316,000 





316,000 

( 0. 



3) 



316,000 
( 0.3) 









( 0.0) 


( 0.0) 









0.0) 



234 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Existing 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area ( ha ) 



Totals 

(% total area) 

SENEGAL (196,720 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
Hunting Reserve 
International Park 
National Park 
Nature Reserve 
Special Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



9,696,740 

( 7.6) 



p 


145 


1,081,000 




145 


1,081,000 

( 5.5) 


p 


5 


1,169,009 


p 


1 


60,000 


T 








T 


6 


1,012,450 


T 








P 


1 


16 




13 


2,241,475 

( 11.3) 




158 


3,322,475 

( 16.8) 



Forestry Sector 

(% total area) 
Wildlife Sector 

(% total area) 
Additional Sector or sector unknown 

(% total area) 










2 

2 




209 17,803,067 * 4 
( 3.3) 
62 21,957,451 * 18 
( 4.1) 


( 0.0) 



Total protection 

(% total area) 
Partial protection 

(% total area) 
Degree of protection unknown 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



21 11,830,690 * 
( 2.2) 
250 27,929,828 * 11 
( 5.2) 


( 0.0) 

271 39,760,518 * 22 
( 7.4) 




0.0) 





0.0) 







* 


201 



201 * 

( 0.0) 

201 * 
( 0.0) 



WEST SAHEL (5,339,080 sg. km) - summary by sector 



1.214.700 * 

( 0.2) 

1.261.701 * 

( 0.2) 


( 0.0) 



WEST SAHEL (5,339,080 sg. km) - summary by management category 

11 



1,841,201 * 
( 0.3) 
635,200 * 
( 0.1) 


( 0.0) 

2,476,401 * 
( 0.5) 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data for either number of sites or 
area covered. 



235 



Table 6.4(a) Frequency distributions of conservation area sizes, with means, classified fied by 
management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = 
total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) Additional 
sectors. 







N 


Mean 


Number 


in 1 


each 


size c 


lass (ha) 


a) Forestry Sector 


(ha) 


<1000 


1001 
10 


,000 


10001 
100, 


000 >100,000 


BURKINA FASO 




















Notified sites 


P 

Total 


1 
1 


19,200 
19,200 














1 
1 






CHAD 




















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


2 
17 
19 
2 
2 
4 


207,000 
668,934 
620,309 
520,000 
82,350 
301,175 



3 
3 








2 
2 








4 
4 


2 

2 


2 
8 
10 
2 

2 


GAMBIA 




















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


40 
40 


701 
701 


31 
31 




9 
9 












MALI 




















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


3 
3 


44,940 
44,940 














3 

3 






SENEGAL 




















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


1 

1 


756 
756 


1 
1 


















WEST SABEL 




















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


2 

62 
64 


207,000 
186,366 
187,011 



35 
35 





11 
11 





8 
8 


2 

8 

10 


Proposed sites 


T 

P 

Total 


2 
2 
4 


520,000 

82,350 

301,175 

















2 
2 


2 


2 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



236 



Table 6.4(b) Frequency distributions of conservation area sizes, with means, classified by management 
category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total protection 
with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) Additional sectors. 



b) Wildlife Sector 



Mean 
size 
(ha) 



Number in each size class (ha) 

<1000 1001- 10001- 

10,000 100,000 >100,000 



BURKINA FASO 








Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 
Total 


3 
8 
11 
3 
3 


163,100 
269,175 
240,245 
161,666 
161,666 


GAMBIA 








Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

P 
Total 


3 

1 
4 
2 
2 


6,146 
107 
4,636 
2,250 
2,250 


GUINEA-BISSAU 








Proposed sites 


P 
Total 


5 
5 


91,200 
91,200 


MALI 








Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 
Total 


1 
12 
13 

1 
1 


350,000 
438,499 
431,691 
316,000 
316,000 


MAURITANIA 








Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


1 
3 
4 


310,000 
478,666 
436,500 


NIGER 








Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


3 
3 
6 


3,078,833 

153,413 

1,616,123 


SENEGAL 








Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 
Total 


6 

7 

13 

2 

2 


168,741 

175,575 

172,421 

100 

100 






















1 



1 






4 
4 




5 
5 






2 
2 



2 
2 

4 













1 
7 
8 

1 
1 



1 
2 

3 



3 

1 
4 



1 
2 
3 





237 



WEST SAUEL 
















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


17 
34 
51 


671,570 
310,022 
430,538 


1 
3 
4 


4 

1 
5 


4 
15 
19 


8 
15 
23 


Proposed sites 


T 

P 

Total 


6 

7 
13 


133,533 
65,785 
97,053 


2 

1 
3 




1 
1 


1 
4 
5 


3 
1 
4 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



238 



Table 6.5 State parties to international (and regional) conventions or programmes concerning the 
conservation of natural areas. The number of properties (natural or mixed natural/cultural 
in the case of the World Heritage Convention) recognised under respective conventions is 
given in brackets. 





World Heritage 
Convention 


Biosphere 
Reserves' 


Ramsar 
Convention 


Africa 
Convention 


Burkina Faso 


1987 (0) 


1986 (1) 


1990 (3) 


R 


Cape Verde 


1988 (0) 


- 


- 


- 


Chad 


- 


- 


1990 (1) 


S 


Gambia 


1987 (0) 


- 


- 


R 


Guinea-Bissau 


- 


- 


1990 (1) 


- 


Mali 


1977 (1) 


1982 (1) 


1987 (3) 


R 


Mauritania 


1981 (1) 


- 


1982 (1) 


S 


Niger 


1974 (1) 


- 


1987 (1) 


R 


Senegal 


1976 (2) 


1979 (3) 


1977 (4) 


R 



'Unesco MAB Project 8 
R = ratified 
S = signatory 



239 



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Annex 6.1 List of conservation areas. Locations of most notified conservation areas are shown in the 
accompanying maps in Part IIL 



BURKINA FASO 



Classified Forest 

1 Mare aux Hippototames 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

2 Deux Bales 

3 Kabore-Tambi 

4 W du Burkina Faso 

Subtotal 



1 site 



3 sites 



19,200 1937 
19,200 ha 



56,600 1967 
242,700 1976 
190,000 1954 
489,300 ha 



Partial Faunal 


Reserves 


5 


Arly 




6 


Kourtiagou 




7 


Pama 




8 


Sahel 

Subtotal 




Total Faunal Reserves 


9 


Arly 




10 


Bontioli 




11 


Mad j oar i 




12 


Singou 
Subtotal 





4 sites 



130,000 

51,000 

74,700 

1,600,000 

1,855,700 ha 



1954 
1957 
1955 
1970 



4 sites 



76,000 

12,700 

17,000 
192,000 
297,700 ha 



1954 
1957 
1955 
1955 



Proposed (National Park) 
Komoe-Leraba 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Sanctuaries) 
Beli Bird 
Mare d'Oursi Bird 
Subtotal 



1 site 



2 sites 



280,000 
280,000 ha 



160,000 
45,000 
205,000 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



12 sites 
3 sites 



2,661,900 ha 
485,000 ha 



241 



CAPE VERDE 

Proposed (Integral Reserve) 
Cova Tina 

Subtotal 1 site ha* 

Totals 

Notified conservation areas sites ha 

Proposed conservation areas 1 site ha* 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



242 



CHAD 



Classified Forests 


1 


Bebo 


2 


Deli 


3 


Djoli Kera 


4 


Dora Kagui 


5 


Haut Bragoto 


6 


Helibongo 


7 


Lac Ouei 


8 


Siagon Yamodo 


9 


Timberi 


10 


Yamba Berete 




Subtotal 



Faunal Reserves 

11 Aboutelfan 

12 Bahr Salamat 

13 Binder Lere 

14 Fada Archai 

15 Mandelia 

16 Ouadi Rime-Ouadi Achim 

17 Reserve de la Biosphere de Lac Fitri 

18 Siniaka-Minia 

Subtotal 







12,400 










2,340 




1955 






521 










214,000 










1,254 




1956 






350 










46,500 










64,000 










521 






10 


sites 


341,886 

110,000 

2,060,000 

135,000 

211,000 

138,000 

8,000,000 

50,000 

326,000 


ha' 


1955 
1964 
1974 
1967 
1969 
1969 
1989 
1965 


8 


sites 


11,030,000 


ha 





National Parks 

19 Manda 

20 Zakouma 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



114,000 1969 
300,000 1963 
414,000 ha 



Proposed (Faunal Reserves) 
Beinamar 
Larmanaye 
Subtotal 



2 sites 



76,500 
88,200 
164,700 ha 



Proposed (National Parks) 
Goz-Beida 
L ' Aouk 
Subtotal 



2 sites 



300,000 

740,000 

1,040,000 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



20 sites 
4 sites 



11,785,886 ha* 
1,204,700 ha 



Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



243 



GAMBIA 


Forest Parks 


1 


Bankuba 


2 


Belel 


3 


Beri Kolon 


4 


Brikama 


5 


Dobo 


6 


Gambisara 


7 


Hamdulai 


8 


Helakunda 


9 


Jabisa 


10 


Jamara 


11 


Jambangkunda 


12 


Jeloki 


13 


Jollifin 


14 


Jumbo Yaka 


15 


Jundaia 


16 


Kahi Bad! 


17 


Kaolong 


18 


Kasaywa 


19 


Kenowore 


20 


Kiberi 


21 


Kumadi 


22 


Kusun 


23 


Lohen 


24 


Madina Demba 


25 


Mamato Konko 


26 


Marike 


27 


Mutaro Kunda 


28 


N' Jassang 


29 


Ngeyen 


30 


Ngongonding 


31 


Niani Maru 


32 


Njau 


33 


Nyanaberi 


34 


Pakala 


35 


Sabbi 


36 


Sakaru Dalla 


37 


Sao Frest 


38 


Se-Ulumbang 


39 


Sikunda 


40 


Tanu 




Subtotal 


National Parks 


41 


Kiang West 


42 


Niumi/Sine Saloum 


43 


River Gambia 




Subtotal 


Nature Reserve 


44 


Abuko 




Subtotal 



Proposed (Reserve) 
Coastal 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Wetland Reserve) 
Bau Bolon 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







850 




1954 






405 




1954 






1,052 




1954 






356 




1954 






704 




1954 






308 




1954 






112 




1954 






101 




1954 






16 




1954 






579 




1954 






356 




1954 






858 




1954 






439 




1954 






227 




1954 






437 




1954 






1,485 




1954 






2,379 




1954 






202 




1954 






67 




1954 






389 




1954 






283 




1954 






316 




1954 






95 




1954 






2,373 




1954 






431 




1954 






174 




1954 






809 




1954 






2,347 




1954 






612 




1954 






1,250 




1954 






607 




1954 






364 




1954 






1,198 




1954 






1,161 




1954 






73 




1954 






261 




1954 






728 




1954 






529 




1954 






445 




1954 






2,667 




1954 


40 


sites 


28,045 

11,000 
4,940 
2,500 


ha 


1987 
1987 
1978 


3 


sites 


18,440 
107 


ha 


1968 


1 


site 


107 
1,000 


ha 




1 


site 


1,000 
3,500 


ha 




1 


site 


3,500 


ha 




44 


sites 


46,592 


ha 




2 


sites 


4,500 


ha 





244 



GUINEA-BISSAU 



Hunting Reserves 

1 Arguipelago dos Bijagos 

2 Boe 

3 Ilha de Cofara 

4 Lagoa de Cufada 

5 Mata de Cantanhez 

6 Rio 6eba/Rio Mansoa 

Subtotal 



1980 
1980 
1980 
1980 
1980 
1980 



6 sites 



ha* 



Proposed (National Parks) 
Boe 

Dulombi 

Ilhas de Orango 
Lagoa de Cufada 

Mangais do Rio Cacheu (Pelundo) 
Matas de Cantanhes 
Subtotal 



6 sites 



177,000 

68,000 

89,000 

54,000 

68,000 
456,000 ha* 



Proposed (Protected Area) 
Mata de Cantanhez 
Subtotal 



1 site 



ha* 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



6 sites 

7 sites 



ha* 
456,000 ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



245 



MALI 



Classified Forests 

1 Bossofola 

2 Faya 

3 Nafadji 

Subtotal 

Faunal Reserves 

4 Badinko 

5 Bafing Makana 

6 Banif ing-Baoule 

7 Douentza 

8 Fina 

9 Kenie-Baoule 

10 Kongossambougou 

11 Sounsan 

12 Talikourou 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



9 sites 





12,000 




1944 




79,822 




1954 




43,000 




1952 




134,822 


ha 






193,000 




1951 




158,989 




1990 




13,000 




1954 


1, 


,200,000 




1960 




136,000 




1954 




67,500 




1952 




92,000 




1955 




37,600 




1954 




13,900 




1953 


1 


,911,989 


ha 





National Park 
13 Boucle du Baoule 
Subtotal 



1 site 



350,000 1954 
350,000 ha 



Partial Faunal Reserves 

14 Ansongo-Menaka 

15 Gourma Elephant 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



1,750,000 1956 
1,200,000 1960 
2,950,000 ha 



Sanctuary 
16 Falaise de Bandiagara natural and cultural 

Subtotal 1 site 



400,000 
400,000 ha 



Proposed (National Park) 
Bafing 
Subtotal 



1 site 



316,000 
316,000 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



16 sites 
1 site 



5,746,811 ha 
316,000 ha 



246 



MAURITANIA 



Faunal Reserve 

1 Reserve de Moufflon 
Subtotal 



1 site 



1982 



ha* 



Integral Reserves 

2 Bale du Levrier (Cap Blanc) 

3 lies Mauritaniennes 

4 Las Cuevecillas 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



310,000 1986 
1962 
1986 

310,000 ha* 



National Parks 

5 Banc d'Arguin 

6 Diawling 

Subtotal 

Partial Faunal Reserves 

7 El Agher 

8 Elephant 

9 Tilemsi 

Subtotal 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



2 sites 



3 sites 



9 sites 
sites 



1,173,000 1976 
13,000 1990 
1,186,000 ha 



250,000 1937 



250,000 ha* 



1,746,000 ha* 
ha 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



247 



NIGER 



National Nature Reserve 
1 Air and Tenere 
Subtotal 



1 site 



7,736,000 1988 
7,736,000 ha 



National Park 
2 W du Niger 
Subtotal 



1 site 



220,000 1954 
220,000 ha 



Partial Faunal Reserve 
3 Dosso 

Subtotal 



1 site 



306,500 1962 
306,500 ha 



Strict Nature Reserve 

4 Addax Sanctuary 

Subtotal 



1 site 



1,280,500 1988 
1,280,500 ha 



Total Faunal Reserves 

5 Gadabedji 

6 Tamou 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



76,000 1955 
77,740 1962 
153,740 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



6 sites 
sites 



9,696,740 ha 
ha 



248 



SENEGAL 



Classified Forest 

1 Samba Dia 

Subtotal 

Faunal Reserves 

2 Ferlo-Nord 

3 Ferlo-Sud 

4 Gueumbeul Special 

5 Ndiael 

6 Popenguine Special 

Subtotal 

Hunting Reserve 

7 Maka-Diama 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

8 Basse-Casamance 

9 Delta du Saloum 

10 Djoudj 

11 lies de la Madeleine 

12 Langue de Barbarie 

13 Niokolo-Koba 

Subtotal 

Special Reserve 

14 Kalissaye 

Subtotal 



1 site 



5 sites 



1 site 



6 sites 



1 site 



756 




1936 


756 


ha 




487,000 




1971 


633,700 




1972 


750 




1983 


46,550 






1,009 




1986 


1,169,009 


ha 




60,000 






60,000 


ha 




5,000 




1970 


76,000 




1976 


16,000 




1971 


450 




1949 


2,000 




1976 


913,000 




1954 


1,012,450 


ha 




16 




1978 


16 


ha 





Proposed (International Parks) 

Reserve des Elephants du Fleuve 
Senegambien 
Subtotal 



2 sites 



ha* 



Proposed (Nature Reserves) 

Dindefello Special Faunal and Floral Reserve 
Kassel Special Bird 

Subtotal 2 sites 



111 
90 
201 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



14 sites 
4 sites 



2,242,231 ha 
201 ha* 



Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



249 



Annex 6.2 Extent of notified forests by forest origin and forest 

function. Non -forest includes botfi degraded forest and 
lands not forested at the time of their reservation. 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Burkina Faso 
Total area (sq . km) : 274200 

Land area (sq.km): 273800 

Month/year of reference; 1 983 



Sub -region: West Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



976436 



19200 



TOTAL 



976436 



19200 



Notes: Data are taken from the Ministry of the Environment and 

Tourism (1991). 

All classified forests (except Mare aux Hippopotames 1 9,200ha which 
is also a biosphere reserve) are subject to commercial 
exploitation and hence are listed as production forests. 

Data were gathered in 1983. 



250 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub-region: West Saheiian Africa 

Name of country/state: Cape Verde 
Total area (sq . km) : 4030 

Land area (sq.l<m): 4030 

i\/lonth/year of reference: 

FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(lia) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 

TOTAL 

Notes: No information available 



- 251 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Chad 

Total area (sq . km) : 1 284000 

Land area (sq . km) : 1 259200 

iVIontfi/year of reference: April 1 990 



Sub-region: West Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 14630000 

Non- forest 4936 

Plantation 



5096000 



TOTAL 



14634936 



5096000 



Notes: Data are taken from the Ministry of the Environment and Tourism 

(1990). 

Reforestation areas are listed here as production forests of 
non-forest origin, although they serve both production and 
protection functions. 

The figure 5,096,000 for protection forests represents 10 
classified forests. 



252 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Gambia 

Total area (sq. km) : 1 1 3CX) 

Land area (sq.l<m): 100CX) 

Month/year of reference: 1 992 



Sub-region: West Saiielian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



10700 



2000 



28045 



10000 



TOTAL 



12700 



28045 



10000 



Notes: Data are taken from the Ministry of Natural Resources and the 

Environment (1992). 

Plantations include rhun palm forests and bamboo forests. 

The figures for production and conservation forests 
represent 60 forest parks. 



253 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Guinea-Bissau 
Total area (sq . km) : 36 1 20 

Land area (sq.km): 281 2 

IVlonth/year of reference: 1 991 



Sub-region: West Saiielian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 

TOTAL 



Notes: Data are taken from the Plan de Conservation de I'elephant au 

Guinee- Bissau, 1991. 

The protected area system is the responsibility of the 
Directorate of the Forestry & Hunting Service. 

Proposals exist to establish 5 forest reserves ( to cover 
900sqkm), but no information is currently available on the 
legislation or management authority under which these would 
be established. 



254 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Mali 

Total area (sq . km) : 1 2401 90 

Land area (sq.km): 1 2201 90 

Month/year of reference: 1 980 



Sub-region: West Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 960000 

Non -forest 240000 

Plantation 



134822 



TOTAL 



1200000 



134822 



Notes: Data are taken from FAO (1 981 ) and WCMC database. 

The 1 .2 million ha are found in 102 classified forests. 

The figure of 1 34,822ha represents three classified forests 
listed on WCMC database. 



255 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub-region: West Sahelian Africa 

Name of country/state: Mauritania 
Total area (sq . I<m) : 1 025520 

Land area (sq.km): 1 025520 

IVIonth/year of reference: 

FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 

TOTAL 

Notes: No information available 



256 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Niger 

Total area (sq . km) : 1 267000 

Land area (sq.km): 1 266700 

IVIonth/year of reference: 1 981 



Sub-region: West Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non- forest 
Plantation 



144200 



163800 



TOTAL 



144200 



163800 



Notes: Data are taken from FAO (1 981 ). 

FAO state that 70% of the existing classified 
forest (144,200 ha of 206,000ha) and proposed classified 
forest (163,800ha of 234,000ha) corresponds to productive 
formations. It is not obvious which category the remaining 
30% fits in to. 



257 



Annex 6.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Senegal 

Total area (sq . km) : 1 96720 

Land area (sq.km): 1 92530 

Month/year of reference: 1 981 



Sub-region: West Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 190000 

Non -forest 1502000 

Plantation 



1081000 



TOTAL 



1692000 



1081000 



Notes: Data are taken from FAO (1 981 ) . 

145 classified forests cover 1 ,081,000ha. 



258 



7 EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 



7 EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 



Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda 



7,1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

Protection of nature in the form of local customs and laws is an old tradition throughout the subregion, one 
notable example being the protection of "kayas" or coastal forests as sacred groves in Kenya. More formally, 
the establishment of managed areas began with the reservation of forests at the turn of the century in Kenya and 
Uganda, although the majority were established in the 1930s in Uganda and Sudan, the 1940s in Kenya, the 
1950s in Somalia, and the early 1980s in Ethiopia. There are currently no forest reserves in Djibouti. Within 
the forest reserve networks of Uganda and Kenya, nature reserves have been created which afford a high degree 
of protection to flora and fauna. 

Following the early establishment of game reserves in Kenya m 1898, and the first national park, Foret du Day 
in Djibouti, in 1939, all countries of the subregion currently have conservation areas within the wildlife sector. 
Further, all countries, with the exception of Uganda, have passed post-independence legislation providing for 
the creation of conservation areas, mostly during the late 1960s and 1970s. 

In at least half the countries of the subregion the administration of forest reserves and conservation areas in the 
wildlife sector originally fell to the same organisation, and in Uganda game reserves were initially created from 
forest reserves. Today, all countries have distinct forestry and wildlife agencies, although within a number of 
countries these agencies are collaborating their efforts to ensure the effective management of conservation areas. 



7.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

Legal provisions for the creation and management of conservation areas exist in all East Sahelian countries. 
These are summarised in Table 7. 1 and reviewed below. 

7.2.1 Forestry Sector 

Policy Current forestry policy throughout the subregion reflects the dual purposes of protection and 
management for sustainable use. For example, one aim of the forest policy of Kenya, as contained within 
sessional paper No. 1 of 1968, is to draw up management plans for all forests, based on the principle of 
sustained yield. Further, policy statements for Somalia emphasise the preservation of forestry and wildlife 
resources for the benefit of the Somalian people, the creation of protected areas, and the preparation of 
management plans combining production and conservation. 

The need to increase the area under reservation is also reflected in a number of statements. In Uganda, 
emphasis is placed on the maintenance of enough forest land to ensure sufficient supplies of timber, to allow 
for amenity and recreation, and to ensure the conservation of plants and animals in natural ecosystems. The 
forest policy also specifies that 20% of the total reserved forest area is to be conserved in strict nature reserves, 
and a further 30% protected from intensive forms of forest management in buffer zones. Similarly, a forest 
law and policy was drafted for Sudan in 1989 which, together, are to provide for production and protection 
functions within forest reserves, and specify that 20% of the land area is to be protected eventually in the forest 
reserve network. 

Legislation Current forestry legislation dates back to 1932 when the Central and Provincial Forest acts were 
passed in Sudan. A new forest law, drafted in 1989, is, however, likely to replace these early laws. The 1940s 
witnessed the enactment of modem-day forestry laws in Kenya and Uganda, which have subsequently been 
revised numerous times. Forestry laws in Somalia and Ethiopia were passed in 1969 and 1980, respectively. 
All of these laws generally provide for one or more categories of reserve, together with provisions for forest 
exploitation and management practices, establishment of a management authority, the creation and management 

260 



of forest reserves at the local level, and offences and accompanying penalties in connection with forest resources 
and reserves. Related and subsidiary legislation to the principal acts exists for most countries, notable among 
these being the Presidential Decree of 1986 which banned all logging in Kenya, and the Penal Code 
Proclamation of Ethiopia (1957) which has several provisions related to forest and wildlife conservation, and 
reserved lands. 

Somalia and Ethiopia are unique in that provisions relating to the creation and management of forest reserves 
and conservation areas in the wildlife sector are contained within the same legislation. Other countries have 
distinct wildlife and forestry laws. The forestry laws of Kenya and Uganda, however, make provision for the 
establishment of more protective nature reserves within forest reserves. A number of forest reserves in Uganda 
have dual status as national paries, game reserves or sanctuaries. 

In Uganda and Somalia, the need for revised and expanded legislation providing for protected areas has been 
recognised, while national forest priority areas are awaiting legal gazettement in Ethiopia. Forestry legislation 
per se does not exist in Djibouti. 

7.2.2 Wildlife Sector 

Policy Most countries have formulated, or are in the process of developing nature conservation policies. For 
example, Kenya's commitment to conservation was stated in Sessional Paper No. 3, 1975: Statement on Future 
Wildlife Management Policy in Kenya, which made provision for optimising returns from the wildlife resource, 
coherent planning of projects and wildlife programmes, and defined the role of national parks. More 
encompassing is Somalia's Mogadishu Manifesto on the Conservation of Wildlife, 1989, which embodies current 
government policy, formulating the basis for all fiiture development projects and activities in various fields 
pertaining to Somali wildlife. In contrast, the need for a new conservation policy with clear objectives for 
effective management of conservation areas has been recognised in both Uganda and Sudan. 

Legislation Within the subregion, the majority of countries had pre-independence laws relating to the creation 
of conservation areas. Early examples include the Kenya National Parks Ordinance of 1945, the Sudan National 
Parks, Sanctuaries and Reserves Regulations of 1939, and legislation dealing with the establishment of game 
reserves in Uganda in 1902. These were subsequently amended or repealed, most recently in the 1970s 
(Somalia) or 1980s (Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sudan). As of 1990, Somalia was considering new draft 
legislation, while Uganda has recognised the need for legislation to replace that passed in the 1950s and 1960s. 

In the 1970s, Southern Sudan was given a measure of autonomy, and legislation passed in 1972 created the 
categories of national park, game reserve and controlled area for the Southern region. Legislation passed in 
1986, however, provides for the establishment and management of conservation areas throughout the country 
and replaces the earlier laws. 

Present nature conservation legislation in the subregion commonly provides for the establishment of national 
parks, game reserves, sanctuaries, and controlled hunting areas, while Somalia also has a grazing reserve 
designation. National parks tend to afford the highest degree of protection, and controlled hunting areas the 
least throughout the subregion. In Kenya, Somalia, and Uganda, laws were passed in the late 1970s which 
completely banned hunting. 

7.2.3 Additional Sectors 

Not applicable 

7.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 

7.3.1 Forestry Sector 

Administration of forestry is the responsibility of forest departments in the respective countries, with the 
exception of Sudan, where forestry matters fall under the mandate of the National Forestry Corporation (Table 



261 



7.1). Most have a long institutional history, for example, Sudan where the first Forest Department was created 
in 1901. 

In Ethiopia, the State Forest Conservation and Development Department is responsible for the establishment 
and management of national forest priority areas, while peasant associations and urban dwellers associations are 
responsible for natural resources, including forests, within their areas of local jurisdiction. In Kenya, trust land 
forests are managed by the county councils, while other forest reserves are managed by the Forest Department. 
Management of forests under the National Forestry Corporation of Sudan is mostly confined to the north of the 
coimtry due to the ongoing civil war. 

Management of conservation areas, apart from forest reserves serving a protection or conservation fimction, 
falls outside the forestry sector, the exceptions being nature reserves in Kenya, and nature reserves and sites 
of special scientific interest in Uganda. In Kenya, nature reserves are managed jointly by the Forest Department 
and Kenya Wildlife Service, while the Game Department in Uganda has jurisdiction over wild animals in all 
forest reserves and maintains field staff in some of the larger reserves. Further, several forest reserves in 
Uganda have dual status as national parks or game reserves and are therein managed jointly by forestry and 
wildlife sectors. 

7.3.2 Wildlife Sector 

The management of conservation areas in the wildlife sector is the responsibility of one organisation in Ethiopia 
(Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organisation), and by two or more agencies in the other five countries of the 
subregion. In Sudan, for example, management jurisdiction lies with the Wildlife Conservation and National 
Park Forces in the Northern Region and with the Regional Ministry of Wildlife Conservation, Fisheries and 
Tourism in the Southern Region, while in Somalia three agencies are involved: the National Range Agency in 
the southern and northern regions; the Central Rangelands Development Project in the central region; and the 
Ministry for Jubba Valley Development, in conjunction with the National Range Agency, in the Middle Jubba. 
Although most conservation areas in the wildlife sector of Kenya are managed by the Kenya Wildlife Service, 
national reserves are administered by district councils. Djibouti is unique to the subregion in having a research 
institute assist with the management of conservation areas. 

7.3.3 Additional Sectors 
Not applicable 

7.3.4 Non-GoTenunental Organisations 

The Somali Ecological Society is currently managing Balcad Nature Reserve. 

7.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 

The managed areas system is mapped for each country within the subregion in Fig. 7.1. Details of individual 
conservation areas are given in Annex 7.1 which also serves as a key to the maps. The bulk (about 95% total 
area) of the conservation areas network falls within the domain of the wildlife sector. 

7.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 

Coverage Natural reserved forests account for about 0.8% of the total area of the subregion (Table 7.2). They 
are most extensive in Uganda (5.4%) and Kenya (2.5%), respectively. Currently, no natural forests are legally 
reserved in Djibouti, while the situation in Somalia is unclear. 

Of the 0.8% of natural reserved forests in the subregion, more than half serves a conservation or protection 
function (Table 7.2). All forest reserves in Kenya are considered conservation forests by virtue of a country- 
wide ban on logging in 1986, while of the more than 700 notified reserves in Uganda, conservation forests 
constitute 63 % of the forest estate, and a further 9 % is protection forest. When legally established, the national 

262 



forest priority areas of Ethiopia will be zoned into management blocks for production, conservation and 
protection purposes. 

7.4.2 Conserration Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 

Coverage There are more than 800 notified conservation areas in the East Sahel, covering 43.3 million ha or 
8.3% of total area (Fig. 7.1). The forestry sector is directly responsible for over 600 conservation areas, 
covering approximately 2.4 million ha or 0.4% of total area for the subregion. All of these lie in Kenya ( > 200 
forest reserves) and Uganda (>460 forest reserves) (Table 7.3). 

Approximately 9% of conservation areas are under total protection, covering 3.0% of area in the subregion 
(Table 7.3). Most of these fall within the wildlife sector. The rest are partially protected. 

The target of 10% of total area under protection for conservation purposes has been reached by Uganda 
(23.7%), Ethiopia (15.9%), and Kenya (10.3%). The Sudan is half-way towards reaching the target. Least 
extensive are the networks of Djibouti (0.4%) and Somalia (0.8%). About 73% of the conservation area in 
Ethiopia, and over 50% of lands in Uganda, however, is tied up in game sanctuaries and controlled hunting 
areas which make minimal provision for habitat protection and are designated essentially for hunting purposes. 

Representativeness Nature conservation areas have often been established haphazardly in the past, with little 
regard to ecological or other criteria for their selection. This is reflected in the existing networks of Djibouti, 
with dense forest habitats needing further protection (Welch & Welch, 1985), and Ethiopia where a number of 
important ecosystems are largely unprotected (Friis & Tadesse, 1990). A number of programmes and plans, 
however, have been formulated which recommend an expansion to the conservation areas network in Ethiopia. 

In Kenya, national parks and conservation areas in the wildlife sector are found in the majority of habitat types 
for the country. The largest proportion of these, however, are found in arid and semi-arid regions (Pertet, 
n.d.). In response to this, the Kenya Wildlife Service is striving to create a national network of conservation 
areas and is developing a systems plan (KWS, 1990). Within the forestry sector, the establishment of a further 
500,000ha in forest reserves is awaiting legal notification. 

In Somalia there is an urgent need to establish a conservation areas system, made almost impossible by the 
current security problems and drought. The majority of conservation areas in Sudan are in savanna woodlands, 
found mainly in the inaccessible south, and no conservation areas occur in desert and Sahelian zones which 
make up half the country (Stuart & Adams, 1990). 

Uganda is considered to have a good system of parks and reserves. Nevertheless, 25 out of 94 non-aquatic 
ecosystems are totally unprotected or only have small portions within forest or wildlife reserves. To afford a 
greater degree of protection, the Forestry Department has recently created a number of sites of special scientific 
interest, and is currently looking to expand nature reserves from 5 % to 20 % of total reserved forest area (Forest 
Department, pers. comm., 1990; Howard, 1988). 

Integrity Using mean size as a measure of integrity, data in Table 7.4 indicate that forest reserves serving a 
conservation or protection fimction in Kenya tend to be small, the majority being less than l,000ha in size. 
Similarly, the totally protected nature reserves of Kenya and Uganda have a mean size of less than 6,000ha. 
In the wildhfe sector, established conservation areas in Sudan and Ethiopia tend to be large, with totally 
protected areas in Sudan having a mean size greater than one million ha. Partially protected areas in Uganda 
and Somalia have a mean in excess of 120,000ha, while those of Kenya are less than 60,000ha. Significantly, 
however, totally protected areas in Uganda and in particularly, Kenya, are a respectable size, having a mean 
larger than 100,000ha. Conservation areas in Djibouti tend to be on the small side. 

The mean size of partially protected areas (7,050ha) in the forestry sector, made up exclusively of forest 
reserves, is almost twice that of totally protected areas (4,675ha). This reflects the relatively small size of 
nature reserves in the subregion. In the wildlife sector, the mean size of totally protected areas (282,395ha) 
is slightly larger than that for partially protected sites (239,242ha). National parks constitute the bulk of the 
former category, and by definition tend to be relatively large areas to provide a range of services. Partially 

263 



protected areas comprise mainly game reserves, controlled hunting areas, and sanctuaries. Significantly, 
conservation areas in the wildlife sector tend to be considerably larger than those in the forestry sector. 

EfTectiveness Apart from gaps in the representation of the subregion's biological diversity within existing 
conservation area networks, conservation efforts are limited by weaknesses in policy and legislation, inadequate 
institutional support and ineffective management. 

As mentioned in Section 7.2, nature conservation policies in both the forestry and wildlife sectors have been 
formulated or are in the process of being drafted or amended for all countries of the subregion, the exception 
being Djibouti. 

For a number of countries, legislation needs strengthening or updating. For exan^le, existing forestry laws 
need to be reviewed in Kenya, and regulations enacted in Ethiopia to allow for the legal establishment of 
conservation areas and national forest priority areas. New definitions for the various types of conservation areas 
in the wildlife sector also need to be established in Ethiopia. In Somalia, the need for new legislation covering 
all aspects of forestry and wildlife has been recognised. As such, a wildlife law was drafted in 1990 which 
makes provision for a number of conservation area designations, and it has been recommended that 
complimentary forestry legislation be prepared. Security problems in a number of countries of the subregion 
have frequently hampered the enactment of conservation areas legislation. 

Institutional resources for conservation area management are inadequate in all countries within the subregion. 
Constraints include a lack of adequately trained staff, fiinds, resources, and scientific information upon which 
to base sound management decisions. These problems are most acute in Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, while 
the situation in Uganda is gradually improving after years of political turmoil. Further hindrances to 
conservation areas management are poor communication and transportation networks in a number of countries. 
Conservation areas management is further complicated where forestry and wildlife agencies are both involved: 
the need for, and often lack of coordinated management in Kenya's nature reserves is a prime example. 

Low priority and a general lack of commitment of resources for conservation areas is largely responsible for 
many of the deficiencies in their management. This situation is exacerbated by countries having an unclear 
programme or weak planning of their conservation area networks. Very few conservation areas in the subregion 
have management plans, and for those which do exist, they are largely out-of-date or difficult to implement. 
For example, the management plans for conservation areas in Uganda have been mostly forgotten and never 
acted upon, while all working plans for forest reserves in the country are out-of-date. The majority of 
conservation areas in Somalia, Sudan, and to a lesser extent Ethiopia, exist on paper only, while the boundaries 
of conservation areas in the wildlife sector of Uganda and protected forests in Somalia are ill-defined. 

Common threats to the subregion's conservation areas include p>oaching, expansion of human settlements, illegal 
grazing, shifting cultivation, unauthorised extraction of timber, fuelwood and minor forest products, 
uncontrolled bushfires, and, in the cases of Sudan and Kenya, dams and irrigation schemes. These threats are 
compounded by a rapidly growing population in the subregion, civil unrest in a number of countries, and famine 
in drought-stricken areas. 

7.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 

Data in Table 7.2 indicate that the contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation is minimal (0.5%) 
in terms of the total area of the subregion imder protection and conservation forest. Although data for Somalia 
are missing, it is likely that the contribution of this cotintry to the total would not be significant ( < 0. 1 %). In 
contrast, about 95 % of the conservation area network falls within the domain of the wildlife sector, covering 
7.9% of total area of the subregion (Table 7.3). 



264 



7.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 

7.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 

Official proposals to expand the conservation area network total 9.3 million ha, or 1.8% of the total area of the 
subregion (Table 7.3). Two-thirds of this is proposed in the wildlife sector, with the majority of sites to be 
afforded partial protection. Improvements to the network affect 1.6 million ha in Sudan, 2.4 million ha in 
Ethiopia, and 4.6 million ha in Somalia. Proposed areas in Ethiopia already exist as de facto national forest 
priority areas which serve protection and production functions. 

Other significant extensions to existing national networks are planned for Sudan and Kenya. Proposals for 20% 
of reserved forest lands to be designated as nature reserves in Uganda will afford protection to the entire variety 
of ecosystems within forest reserves, include medium altitude forest and critical sites of biological diversity 
(Howard, 1988; Pomeroy, 1990). 

7.5.2 Other National Initiatives 

Strengthening networks A variety of initiatives to strengthen conservation areas planning and management 
is being implemented or formulated. Following the National Programme for the Conservation and Management 
of Forests, Wildlife, Soils and Water and its Tropical Forestry Action Plan, Ethiopia has demarcated 58 national 
forest priority areas and is considering the establishment of a number of wildlife reserves and national parks. 
Under the Kenya Indigenous Forest Conservation Project, an additional 500,000ha of conservation forest have 
been earmarked for notification, forest inventories are being conducted, and management plans are being drawn 
up (World Bank, 1988). Under the World Bank's Environmental Action Plan for Somalia, the remnant riverine 
forests of the Jubba valley have been established as a priority concern, while a Tropical Forestry Action Plan 
has recently been initiated in the country (lUCN, 1990; Stuart & Adams, 1990). The Five-year Development 
Programme 1987-1991 for Sudan includes increasing the area of savanna forest reserves to be brought under 
protection and management (World Bank, 1986), while a govemment/ICBP conservation programme is assisting 
with managing reserves (Stuart & Adams, 1990). The European Commission has fimded the Natural Forest 
Management and Conservation Project in Uganda which supports the Forestry Department in its goal to expand 
nature reserves in the country, while a conservation project has begun for the degraded forests of Mount Elgon, 
Kibale, and Semliki (Harcourt, in press). 

Overcoming Economic Constraints Funding is a major factor which limits the effective management of 
conservation areas. In addition to the aid projects mentioned above, the Elephant Action Plans, prepared for 
most countries in the subregion, identify funding and project priorify areas. 

Since 1987, tourism has been the largest foreign exchange earner in Kenya, with the Kenya Wildlife Service 
receiving KSh 130 million in 1990. It has been suggested that a Wildlife Conservation Trust be established as 
a long-term strategy to strengthen the Uganda National Parks and Game Department (Pomeroy, 1990). 

Improving Management Within the subregion, there are several initiatives which attempt to link conservation 
with development in and around conservation areas. Two examples are the management of wildlife outside 
conservation areas by local residents under the Kenya Wildlife Service's Community Wildlife Programme, and 
a collaborative govertunent/FAO/UNDP project in Somalia which has been working towards applying the 
benefits of conservation to local communities (Stuart & Adams, 1990). Goals of forest management in Sudan 
include the need to increase the area and protection of forest reserves in woodland areas, and promote multiple- 
use management to benefit people living near forest reserves (ESMAP, 1986). The National Rehabilitation and 
Development Plan 1988/89-1991/92 of Uganda includes provision for the integration of wildlife management 
with rural development (Uganda National Parks, 1991), while the management of forest parks will involve an 
Advisory Committee composed of local authorities and community leaders. 

7.5.3 International Initiatives 

Conventions and Programmes Most countries within the subregion participate in one or more international 
conventions and programmes concerned with conservation areas (Table 7.5). All countries except Djibouti and 

265 



Somalia have accepted or ratified the Convention Concerning the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, but only 
Ethiopia has had a natural property inscribed on the World Heritage List. 

Kenya and Uganda have acceded to or ratified the Ramsar Convention, while Kenya, Sudan and Uganda all 
participate in the Unesco Man and Biosphere Programme. To date, five biosphere reserves have been created 
in Kenya. All countries of the subregion have either ratified or are signatory to the AfricanConvention, which 
defines several designations of conservation area. 

Cooperative agreements Cooperation within the subregion is difficult due to civil unrest in a number of 
coimtries. Nevertheless, an action plan to conserve and strengthen the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem between 
Kenya and Tanzania, and an agreement between Sudan and Egypt to establish the Gebel Elba Conservation 
Area, are examples of cooperative arrangements being attempted. The existence of a number of transboundary 
conservation areas in the region provides a departure point for further advancements. 



7.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 

Priorities for conservation action in the subregion were reviewed as part of the TUCN Systems Review of the 
Afrotropical Realm (Mackiimon and MacKinnon, 1986), and in the accompanyiiig Action Strategy (lUCN, 
1987), but these are somewhat dated. 

Priorities have been reviewed more recently by lUCN (1992) in preparation for the IV World Parks Congress. 
These are generalised, recognising that translation of priorities into action will vary according to national 
conservation objectives, history and political will. They provide a foundation to the more specific priorities 
identified in this report and summarised in Table 7.6. 

In conclusion, progress throughout the subregion has been hindered by civil unrest, environmental conditions 
(i.e. drought), and the demand on resources by rapidly growing human populations. Not surprisingly, the 
greatest progress has been made in those countries where these seemingly intractable problems have been 
minimal. Governments of the subregion are aware of the need for conservation area networks, well-fimded 
institutions and up-to-date policy and legislation but have their hands tied by more immediate demands. 



266 



REFERENCES 

ESMAP (1986). Fuelwood/forestry project feasibility aide memoire. Energy Sector Management Assistance 

Programme. 23 pp. 
Friis, I. and Tadesse, M. (1990). The evergreen forests of tropical N.E. Africa. In: Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. 

Hamburg 23a: 249-263. 
Harcourt, C.A. (1991). Chapter 31: Uganda. In: J.A. Sayer, C.A. Harcourt, N.M. Collins (Eds.) (In press), 

The conservation atlas of tropical forests. Africa. Prepared by lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and WCMC, 

Cambridge, UK. MacMillan Press, London. 
Howard, P.C. (1988). Nature conservation in Uganda's tropical forest reserves. Kampala, Uganda. 

Unpublished draft. 302 pp. 
lUCN (1987). Action strategy for proteaed areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 56 pp. 
lUCN (1990). The lUCN Sahel Programme progress report: 1 December 1989 - 31 May 1990. lUCN, Gland, 

Switzerland. 32 pp. 
lUCN (1992). Regional Review - Eastern Africa, hi: Regional reviews. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 2.1 

-2.30. 
KWS (1990). Kenya Wildlife Service - A policy framework and development programme 1991-96: Annex 6 - 

Community conservation and wildlife management outside parks and reserves. Kenya Wildlife Service, 

Nairobi. 181 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and Mackinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Afrotropical Realm. 

lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 259 pp. 
Pertet, F. (n.d.). Endangered and critical habitat areas in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. 14 pp. 
Pomeroy, D.E. (Ed.) (1990). Forum II - conservation of biodiversity in Uganda. Proceedings of the Second 

Conservation Forum, 8-10 February, Kabarole District, Uganda. 63 pp. 
Stuart, S.N. and Adams, R.J. (1990). Biodiversity in Sub-saharan j^ca and its islands: conservation, 

management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 242 pp. 
Uganda National Parks (1991). Elephant conservation plan - Uganda. Uganda National Parks, Kampala. 

52 pp. 
Welch, G.R. and Welch, H.J. (1985). Djibouti II Autumn '85. Privately published. 197 pp. 
World Bank (1986). Sudan: Forestry Sector Review. Report No. 5911-SU. The Worid Bank, Washington, 

DC. 183 pp. 
World Bank (1988). Kenya - Forestry subsector review. Report No. 6651-KE. Agricultural Operations 

Division, Eastern Africa Department. 41 pp. 



267 






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Table 7,2 Extent of notified natural forests, classified by forest fiinction. Units are in sq. km, 

followed by % total area. Full data, with sources, are given in Annex 7.2. 



Country Total FOREST FUNCTION 

SUBREGION Area Production Protection Conservation Total 



Djibouti 


23,200 




















(0.0) 


Ethiopia' 


1,221,900 




















(0.0) 


Kenya' 


580,370 












14,741 


(2.5) 


14,741 


(2.5) 


Somalia^ 


637,660 


? 




? 




? 




? 




Sudan' 


2,505,810 


12,700 


(0.5) 












12,700 


(0.5) 


Uganda 


235,880 


3,575 


(1.5) 


1,145 


(0.5) 


8,067 


(3.4) 


12,787 


(5.4) 



EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 

5,204,820 >16,275(>0.3) >1, 145(H) >22,808(>0.4) >40,228 (>0.8) 



? No information 

' National forest priority areas await legal gazettement. Although de facto protected areas, they are 

not included. 
^ All forest reserves (except plantations) are classified as conservation forest in view of the 1986 

ban on felling of indigenous trees. 
' There are 27 'protected forests' in the country, but no data are available. 
* The total for natural production forest is inflated because it includes unknown amounts of 

protection forest, and may include some plantation forest. 



271 



Table 7^ Extent of notified and proposed conservation areas, classified by sector and national 

designation. Management categories are assigned to designations based on national 
legislation (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total 
protection with no extractive uses). Totals for proposed sites may be inflated because 
they may include areas of properties already protected but proposed for upgrading to 
higher conservation status. Details of individual properties are given in Annex 7.2. 
N is the total number of conservation areas. 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



DJIBOUTI (23,200 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 

Integral Reserve 

National Park 

Territorial Park 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

ETHIOPIA (1,221,900 sq. km) 



T 


1 


* 










T 


1 


10,000 










T 


1 


* 












3 


10,000 * 














( 0.4) 




( 


0.0) 




3 


10,000 * 














( 0.4) 




( 


0.0) 



Forest Sector 

National Forest Priority Area' 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 

Controlled Hunting Area 

Marine National Park 

National Park 

Sanctuary 

Wildlife Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



P 
T 
T 
T 
P 








18 

1 

9 

3 

11 

42 



42 






0.0) 



13,182,300 * 
200,000 
2,082,900 
957,300 
2,982,400 
19,404,900 * 
( 15.9) 

19,404,900 * 
( 15.9) 



7 


2< 


,443,107 





2, 


,443,107 
( 2.0) 
















































( 0.0) 





2, 


,443,107 
( 2.0) 



KENYA (580,370 sq. km) 



Forest Sector 



Forest Reserve 


P 


7 


1,421,400 * 


132 


581,261* 


Nature Reserve 


T 


11 


52,679 * 








Subtotals 




11 


1,474,079 * 


132 


581,261* 


(% total area) 






( 2.5) 




( 1.0) 


Wildlife Sector 












Game Sanctuary 


P 


1 


500 








Marine National Park 


T 


5 


43,700 


1 


250 


Marine National Reserve 


P 


5 


70,609 








National Park 


T 


22 


2,905,261 


3 


115,032 


National Reserve 


P 


23 


1,527,333 








Subtotals 




56 


4,547,403 


4 


115,282 


(% total area) 






( 7.8) 




( 0.2) 


Totals 




67 


6,021,482 * 


136 


696,543* 


(% total area) 






( 10.3) 




( 1.2) 



272 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



SOMALIA (637,660 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 

Controlled Hunting Area 
Game Reserve 
National Park 
Nature Reserve 
Partial Game Reserve 
Wildlife Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

SUDAN (2,505,810 sg. km) 

Wildlife Sector 
Bird Sanctuary- 
Game Reserve 
Managed Nature Reserve 
Marine National Park 
National Park 
Nature Conservation Area 
Wildlife Sanctuary 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

UGANDA (235,880 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Forest Reserve 

Nature Reserve 

Site of Special Scientific 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 

Controlled Hunting Area 

Game Reserve 

National Park 

Sanctuary 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 


3 


* 








p 


4 


344,360 * 








T 








11 


2,240,000* 


P 


2 


180,190 








P 


4 


* 








P 








10 


2,350,000* 




13 


524,550 * 
( 0.8) 


21 


4,590,000* 
( 7.2) 




13 


524,550 * 
( 0.8) 


21 


4,590,000* 
( 7.2) 



P 








8 




14,200* 


P 


14 


3,130,000 


5 




600,000* 


P 








1 




12,000 


T 


1 


26,000 


1 




0* 


T 


7 


8,473,000 


2 




76,000* 


P 








5 




880,000* 


P 


3 


95,500 












25 


11,724,500 
( 4.6) 


22 


1, 


,582,200* 
( 0.6) 




25 


11,724,500 
( 4.6) 


22 


1, 


,582,200* 
( 0.6) 



p 

T 
P 



P 
P 
T 
P 



12 

4 

16 



14 

11 

6 

8 

39 



55 



872,116 

45,509 

3,574 

921,199 
( 3.9) 



2,828,501 * 

919,215 

833,606 

98,816 

4,680,138 * 

( 19.8) 

5,601,337 * 
( 23.7) 




3,054 



3,054 

( 0.0) 









0.0) 

3,054 
0.0) 



273 



COUNTRY 


Man. Notified 
Cat 




Proposed 


National designat: 


Lon N Area (ha) 


N 


Area ( ha ) 


EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 


(5,204,820 sq. km) - summary by sector 




Forestry Sector 

(% total area) 
Wildlife Sector 
(% total area) 
Additional Sector or 


27 2,395,278 * 
( 0.5) 
178 40,891,491 * 
( 7.9) 
sector unknown 


133 
47 



3,027,422* 
( 0.6) 

6,287,482* 

< 1.2) 




(% total area) 


( 0.0) 




( 0.0) 


EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 


(5,204,820 sq. km) - summary by management 


category 


Total protection 
(% total area) 

Partial protection 
(% total area) 

Degree of protection 
(% total area) 


80 15,629,955 * 
( 3.0) 
125 27,656,814 * 
( 5.3) 
unknown 

( 0.0) 


19 
161 



2,434,336* 
( 0.5) 

6,880,568* 

( 1.3) 



( 0.0) 


Totals 

(% total area) 


205 43,286,769 * 
( 8.3) 


180 


9,314,904* 
( 1.8) 



Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data for either number of sites 
or area covered. 



274 



Table 7.4(a) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable 
extractive uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) 
Wildlife and (c) Additional sectors. 



a) Forestry Sector 



Mean 

size 
(ha) 



Number in each size class (ha) 

<1000 1001- 10001- 

10,000 100,000 >100,000 



KENYA 



Notified sites 


T 


9 


5,853 


5 


3 


1 







P 


229 


7,157 


132 


60 


36 


1 




Total 


238 


7,108 


137 


63 


37 


1 


Proposed sites 


P 


125 


4,650 


91 


24 


9 


1 




Total 


125 


4,650 


91 


24 


9 


1 


UGANDA 
















Notified sites 


T 


12 


3,792 


3 


8 


1 







P 


4 


893 


2 


2 










Total 


16 


3,067 


5 


10 


1 





Proposed sites 


T 


1 


3,054 





1 










Total 


1 


3,054 





1 









EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 



Notified sites 



Proposed sites 



T 


21 


4,675 


8 


11 


2 





P 


233 


7,050 


134 


62 


36 


1 


Total 


254 


6,853 


142 


73 


38 


1 


T 


1 


3,054 





1 








P 


125 


4,650 


91 


24 


9 


1 


Total 


126 


4,637 


91 


25 


9 


1 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily ecfuate 
to N in Table 7.3, because the areas of some individual properties may be 
unknown . 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



275 



Table 7.4(b) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable 
extractive uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife 
and (c) Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 
size 
(ha) 


Number 


in each 


size class (ha) 


b) Wildlife Sector 


<1000 


1001- 


10001- 














10,000 


100,000 


>100,000 


DJIBOUTI 
















Notified sites 


T 


1 


10,000 





1 










Total 


1 


10,000 





1 








ETHIOPIA 
















Notified sites 


T 


13 


249,246 





1 


4 


8 




P 


25 


646,588 








2 


23 




Total 


38 


510,655 





1 


6 


31 


KENYA 
















Notified sites 


T 


27 


109,220 


6 


6 


11 


4 




P 


29 


55,118 


1 


7 


14 


7 




Total 


56 


81,203 


7 


13 


25 


11 


Proposed sites 


T 


4 


28,820 


1 





3 







Total 


4 


28,820 


1 





3 





SOMALIA 
















Notified sites 


P 


4 


131,137 


1 





1 


2 




Total 


4 


131,137 


1 





1 


2 


Proposed sites 


T 


8 


280,000 





1 


2 


5 




P 


7 


335,714 











7 




Total 


15 


306,000 





1 


2 


12 


SUDAN 
















Notified sites 


T 


8 


1,062,375 








3 


5 




P 


17 


189,735 


2 


2 


6 


7 




Total 


25 


468,980 


2 


2 


9 


12 


Proposed sites 


T 


1 


76,000 








1 







P 


10 


150,620 





3 


2 


5 




Total 


11 


143,836 





3 


3 


5 


UGANDA 
















Notified sites 


T 


6 


138,934 





1 


2 


3 




P 


31 


124,081 


1 


5 


17 


8 




Total 


37 


126,490 


1 


6 


19 


11 


EAST SAHELIAN AFRICA 














Notified sites 


T 


55 


282,395 


6 


9 


20 


20 




P 


106 


239,242 


5 


14 


40 


47 




Total 


161 


253,984 


11 


23 


60 


67 


Proposed sites 


T 


13 


187,021 


1 


1 


6 


5 




P 


17 


226,835 





3 


2 


12 




Total 


30 


209,582 


1 


4 


8 


17 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 7.3, because the areas of some individual properties may be 
unknown . 
Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



276 



Table 7.5 State parties to international (and regional) conventions or programmes concerning 

the conservation of natural areas, together with the number of properties (natural or 
mixed natural /cultural in the case of the World Heritage Convention) recognised 
under respective conventions in brackets. 





World Heritage 
Convention 


Biosphere 
Reserves' 


Ramsar 
Convention 


African 
Convention 


Djibouti 


_ 


- 


- 


R 


Ethiopia 


1977 (1) 


- 


- 


S 


Kenya 


1991 (0) 


1978 (5) 


1990 (1) 


R 


Somalia 


- 


- 


- 


S 


Sudan 


1974 (0) 


1979 (2) 


- 


R 


Uganda 


1987 (0) 


1979 (1) 


1988 (1) 


R 



'Unesco MAB Project 8 
R = ratified 
S = signatory 



277 



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1 



Annex 7.1 List of conservation areas. Locations of most notified conservation areas are shown 

in the accompanying maps in Part IE 



DJIBOUTI 

Integral Reserve 

1 Maskali Sud 

Subtotal 1 site 

National Park 

2 Foret du Day 

Subtotal 1 site 

Territorial Park 

3 Musha 

Subtotal 1 site 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 3 sites 

Proposed conservation areas sites 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 









1980 






ha* 




10, 


000 




1939 


10, 


000 


ha 
ha* 


1972 


IC 


1,000 ha* 






ha 





279 



ETHIOPIA 



Controlled Hunting Areas 

1 Afdem-Gewane 

2 Akobo 

3 Aral 

4 Awash West 

5 Bale 

5 Borana 

7 Boyo Swamp 

8 Chercher & Arba Gugu 

9 Dabus Valley 

10 Eastern Hararghe (Harar-Wabi Shebelle) 

11 Erer-Gota 

12 Jikao 

13 Maze 

14 Mizan-Teferi 

15 Murle 

16 Omo West 

17 Segen Valley 

18 Tedo 

Subtotal 

Marine National Park 

19 Dahlac 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

20 Abijatta-Shalla Lakes 

21 Awash 

22 Bale Mountains 

23 Gambella 

24 Mago 

25 Nechisar 

26 Omo 

27 Simen Mountains 

28 Yangudi Rassa 

Subtotal 





593,200 




1973 




504,900 




1973 




1,087,600 




1973 




913,600 




1973 




966,300 




1973 




4,536,600 




1973 
1983 




304,500 




1973 




212,700 




1973 




2,378,800 




1973 




238,600 




1973 




337,500 




1973 
1983 
1985 




417,200 




1973 




456,100 




1973 
1983 




234,700 




1973 


18 sites 


13,182,300 


ha^ 


tc 




200,000 




1969 


1 site 


200,000 


ha 






88,700 




1970 




75,600 




1966 




247,100 




1969 




506,100 




1974 




216,200 




1978 




51,400 




1973 




406,800 




1966 




17,900 




1966 




473,100 




1976 


9 sites 


2,082,900 


ha 





Sanctuaries 

29 Babile Elephant 

30 Senkelle Swayne's Hartebeest 

31 Yabello 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



698,200 1970 
5,400 1972 
253,700 1985 
957,300 ha 



Wildlife Reserves 

32 Alledeghi 

33 Awash West 

34 Bale 

35 Chew Bahr 

36 Gash-Setit 

37 Gewane 

38 Mille-Sardo 

39 Nakfa 

40 Shire 

41 Tama 

42 Yob 

Subtotal 



11 sites 



183 
178 
176 
421 

70 
243 
876 
163 

75 

326 

265 

2,982 



,200 
,100 
,600 
,200 
,900 
,900 
,600 
,900 
,300 
,900 
,800 
,400 ha 



1973 
1973 
1973 
1973 
1959 
1973 
1973 
1959 
1973 
1973 
1959 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



42 sites 
sites 



19,404,900 ha* 
ha 



Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



280 



KENYA 



Forest Reserves' 

1 Aberdares (Central Muranga) 

2 Aberdares (Central Nyandarua) 

3 Aberdares (Central Nyeri) 

4 Arabuko Sokoke 

5 Bahati 

6 Bojoge 

7 Buda 

8 Bunyala 

9 Cheboyit 

10 Chembartigon 

11 Chemorogok 

12 Chemurokoi 

13 Chepalungu 

14 Chepkuchumo 

15 Cherial 

16 Choke (Mnjonyi) 

17 Dagoretti 

18 East Ngamba 

19 Eastern Mau 

20 Eburu 

21 Eldoret I & II 

22 Embakasl 

23 Embobut 

24 Escarpment 

25 Fururu 

26 Gogoni 

27 Gonja 

28 Ikilisa 

29 Iveti 

30 Jombo 

31 Kabarak 

32 Kabiok 

33 Kaisungor 

34 Kakamega 

35 Kalimani 

36 Kamiti 

37 Kangure 

38 Kapchemutwa 

39 Kapchorua I 

40 Kapchorua IV 

41 Kapkanyar 

42 Kapolet 

43 Kapsaret 

44 Kaptagat 

45 Kaptaroi 

46 Kaptimom 

47 Karua A 

48 Karua B 

49 Karua C 

50 Karura 

51 Kasigau 

52 Katende 

53 Katimok 

54 Kemeto 

55 Kenze 

56 Kerrer 

57 Kessop 

58 Ketnwan 

59 Kiagu 

60 Kiambicho 

61 Kiambu 

62 Kiamuti 

63 Kibithewa 

64 Kibwezi 



21,811 


1943 


48,156 


1943 


33,059 


1943 


41,764 


1943 


10,187 


1932 


2,150 


1991 


668 


1932 


826 


1956 


2,489 


1941 


103 


1949 


1,347 


1949 


3,966 


1941 


4,977 


1956 


320 


1962 


43 


1949 


74 


1991 


764 


1938 


1,070 


1978 


64,966 


1941 


8,715 


1932 


148 


1966 


573 


1941 


21,934 


1954 


74 


1941 


14 


1991 


824 


1932 


842 


1961 


79 


1960 


348 


1933 


907 


1941 


1,392 


1962 


14 


1949 


1,086 


1941 


19,792 


1933 


180 


1960 


170 


1933 


188 


1961 


8,954 


1941 


146 


1941 


142 


1941 


6,037 


1967 


1,552 


1941 


1,194 


1932 


12,980 


1941 


328 


1936 


89 


1949 


28 


1961 


137 


1961 


45 


1961 


1,041 


1932 


202 


1941 


949 


1960 


2,064 


1949 


210 


1949 


188 


1960 


2,160 


1954 


2,347 


1941 


47 


1949 


1,366 


1959 


376 


1961 


134 


1932 


182 


1961 


206 


1959 


5,850 


1936 



281 



65 Kieiga 

66 Kierera 

67 Kiganjo 

68 Kijabe Hill 

69 Kijegge 

70 Kikingo 

71 Kikuyu Escarpment 

72 Kilala 

73 Kilombe Hill 

74 Kilulunyi 

75 Kilungu 

76 Kimojoch 

77 Kinyesha Mvua 

78 Kinyo 

79 Kiongwani 

80 Kioo 

81 Kipipiri 

82 Kipkabus (Elg-Marak) 

83 Kipkabus (Uasin/Gishu) 

84 Kipkunurr 

85 Kiptaberr 

86 Kitalale 

87 Kitale Town 

88 Kiteta 

89 Kithendu 

90 Kitondu 

91 Kitoo 

92 Kitumbuuni 

93 Kiu (Ngungu) 

94 Kyai 

95 Kyemundu 

96 Lariak 

97 Lelan 

98 Lembus 

99 Leroghi 

100 Leshau 

101 Loitokitok 

102 Londiani 

103 Lugari 

104 Lusoi 

105 Maatha 

106 Macha 

107 Magumo North 

108 Magumo South 

109 Mailuganji 

110 Maji Mazuri 

111 Makongo-kitui 

112 Makongo-machakos 

113 Makuli-nguuta 

114 Malaba 

115 Mangrove Swamp 

116 Maragoli 

117 Marenji 

118 Marmanet 

119 Marop 

120 Marsabit 

121 Mataa 

122 Matthews Range 

123 Mau Narok 

124 Mbili 

125 Mchungunyi 

126 Menengai 

127 Meru (Lower Imenti) 

128 Meru (Upper Imenti) 

129 Metkei 

130 Mkongani North 

131 Mkongani West 



546 


1959 


793 


1959 


302 


1932 


706 


1980 


3,296 


1959 


1,234 


1959 


38,334 


1943 


151 


1960 


1,554 


1936 




1991 


148 


1933 


759 


1949 


50 


1991 


324 


1949 


34 


1960 


45 


1960 


5,019 


1956 


920 


1961 


5,827 


1941 


15,176 


1941 


12,886 


1967 


2,037 


1977 


401 


1932 


22 


1933 


219 


1960 


1,085 


1960 


37 


1960 


76 


1960 


83 


1960 


106 


1960 


141 


1960 


4,998 


1932 


14,820 


1958 


12,276 


1959 


91,944 


1936 


195 


1960 


766 


1977 


108 


1932 


2,163 


1977 


260 


1984 


639 


1959 


15 


1991 


242 


1978 


369 


1979 


1,715 


1941 


7,609 


1932 


3,432 


1961 


166 


1960 


1,653 


1960 


719 


1933 


45,068 


1932 


470 


1957 


1,529 


1967 


23,329 


1932 


217 


1949 


15,281 


1932 


43 


1960 


93,766 


1956 


797 


1967 


10 


1991 


8 


1991 


5,990 


1977 


2,462 


1938 


10,388 


1938 


1,987 


1954 


1,113 


1956 


1,366 


1956 



282 



132 


Modagache (Weni-tole) 


133 


Molo 


134 


Momandu 


135 


Mosegem 


136 


Mount Elgon 


137 


Mount Kenya 


138 


Mount Londiani 


139 


Mount Nyiru 


140 


Mrima 


141 


Mtarakwa 


142 


Muguga 


143 


Mukobe 


144 


Mukogodo 


145 


Mumbaka 


146 


Mumoni Hill 


147 


Munguni 


148 


Muringato Nursery 


149 


Mutejwa 


150 


Mutharanga 


151 


Mutito 


152 


Mutula 


153 


Mwachi 


154 


Mwachora 


155 


Mwakamu 


156 


Mwandongo 


157 


Nabkoi 


158 


Nairobi Arboretum 


159 


Nakuru 


160 


Namanga Hill 


161 


Namuluku 


162 


Nandi North 


163 


Nandi South 


164 


Nanyungu 


165 


Ndare 


166 


Ndatai 


167 


Ndiwenyi 


168 


Ndotos Range 


169 


Nduluni-kalani 


170 


Ngaia 


171 


Ngamba 


172 


Ngong Hills 


173 


Ngong Road 


174 


Njuguni 


175 


North Mbooni 


176 


Nthangu 


177 


Ntugi 


178 


Nuu 


179 


Nyambeni 


180 


Nyamweru 


181 


Nyeri 


182 


Nyeri Hill 


183 


Nyeri Municipality 


184 


Nzaui 


185 


Ol-arabel 


186 


Ol-bolossat 


187 


Ol-pusimoru 


188 


Ololua 


189 


Pemwai 


190 


Perkerra Catchment 


191 


Rumuruti 


192 


Saimo 


193 


Sanao 


194 


Sekenwo 


195 


Sekhendu 


196 


Shimba 


197 


Sogotio 


198 


Sokta Hill 



3 


1991 


902 


1932 


139 


1955 


204 


1949 


73,706 


1932 


200,871 


1943 


29,682 


1932 


45,932 


1956 


377 


1961 


112 


1949 


225 


1938 


749 


1962 


30,190 


1937 


479 


1986 


2 


1938 


194 


1959 


25 


1932 


1,376 


1959 


300 


1959 


1,959 


1962 


567 


1960 


417 


1938 


6 


1991 


2 


1991 


688 


1991 


3,015 


1932 


30 


1932 


619 


1977 


11,784 


1979 


8 


1986 


10,501 


1936 


19,502 


1936 


16 


1986 


5,554 


1932 


14 


1960 


6 


1991 


97,165 


1956 


110 


1960 


4,140 


1959 


1,070 


1961 


3,077 


1985 


1,325 


1932 


2,003 


1959 


40 


1933 


844 


1960 


1,379 


1959 


3,533 


1961 


5,391 


1959 


797 


1941 


1,135 


1932 


192 


1944 


8 


1987 


967 


1960 


9,365 


1941 


3,327 


1938 


16,833 


1957 


668 


1941 


148 


1949 


4,359 


1962 


6,367 


1932 


751 


1949 


300 


1949 


862 


1962 


804 


1977 


19,243 


1956 


3,561 


1941 


164 


1949 



283 



199 South Laikipia 

200 South Mbooni 

201 South-western Mau 

202 Southern Mau 

203 Susu 

204 TaranOsas Hill 

205 Taressia 

206 Thunguru Hill 

207 Thuuri 

208 Timau 

209 Timboroa 

210 Tinderet 

211 Tinderet North 

212 Tingwa Hill 

213 Toropket 

214 Transmara 

215 Tulimani 

216 Tumeya (Elgeyo Marakwet) 

217 Tumeya (Uasin Gishu) 

218 Turbo 

219 Tutwoin 

220 Uaso Narok 

221 Ururu 

222 Utangwa 

223 Utunene 

224 Uuni 

225 Waiya 

226 Wanga 

227 Weni-Mwana 

228 West Molo 

229 Western Mau 

230 Witu 

Subtotal 

Game Sanctuary 

231 Maralai 

Subtotal 

Marine National Parks 

232 Kisite/Mpunguti 

233 Malindi 

234 Mombasa 

235 Ras Tenewi 

236 Watamu 

Subtotal 

Marine National Reserves 

237 Kiunga 

238 Malindi 

239 Mombasa 

240 Mpunguti 

241 Watamu 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

242 Aberdare 

243 Amboseli 

244 Arabuko Sokoke 

245 Central Island 

246 Chyulu 

247 Hell's Gate 

248 Kora 

249 Lake Nakuru 

250 Longonot 

251 Malka Mari 

252 Meru 

253 Mount Elgon 





3,472 


1932 




208 


1933 




82,411 


1932 




136 


1941 




2 


1991 




423 


1949 




385 


1936 




631 


1959 




735 


1959 




295 


1950 




5,891 


1932 




27,870 


1932 




26,150 


1932 




915 


1954 




117 


1941 




35,270 


1941 




326 


1960 




366 


1961 




215 


1941 




10,788 


1968 




12 


1949 




2,041 


1960 




433 


1936 




55 


1960 




166 


1960 




93 


1960 




263 


1960 




77 


1986 




5 


1991 




275 


1932 




19,833 


1932 




3,938 


1962 


230 sites 


1,639,079 ha 
500 


* 


1 site 


500 ha 






3,900 


1978 




600 


1968 




1,000 


1986 




35,000 


1991 




3,200 


1968 


5 sites 


43,700 ha 






25,000 


1979 




21,309 


1968 




20,000 


1986 




1,100 


1978 




3,200 


1968 


5 sites 


70,609 ha 






76,619 


1950 




39,206 


1974 




600 


1990 




500 


1983 




47,090 


1983 




6,800 


1984 




178,780 


1989 




18,800 


1967 




5,200 


1983 




87,600 


1989 




87,044 


1966 




16,923 


1968 



284 



254 Mount Kenya 

255 Nairobi 

256 Ndere Island 

257 Ol Donyo Sabuk 

258 Ruma 

259 Saiwa Swamp 

260 Sibiloi 

261 South Island 

262 Tsavo East 

263 Tsavo West 

Subtotal 

National Reserves 

264 Arawale 

265 Bisanadi 

266 Boni 

267 Buffalo Springs 

268 Dodori 

269 Kakainega 

270 Kamnarok 

271 Kerio Valley 

272 Lake Bogoria 

273 Losai 

274 Marsabit 

275 Masai Mara 

276 Mwea 

277 Nasolot 

278 Ngai Ndethya 

279 North Kitui 

280 Rahole 

281 Samburu 

282 Shaba 

283 Shimba Hills 

284 South Kitui 

285 South Turkana 

286 Tana River Primate 

Subtotal 

Nature Reserves 

287 Arabuko Sokoke 

288 Cheptugen-Kapchemutwa 

289 Kaimosi Forest 

290 Kaptagat Forest 

291 Karura 

292 Katimok Kabarnet 

293 Langata 

294 Mbololo 

295 Nandi North 

296 South-Western Mau 

297 Uaso Narok 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Forest Reserves) 
Aroso 

Awach Nursery 
Aywaya 
Bondoni 
Boni 

Bura Nursery 
Chawia 
Chepnyal 
Cheptiram 
Chonyi-kaya 
Sndau (Kenya) 
Fighi Juu Mkumu 
Fungo-kaya 
Gaikuyu 



22 sites 



23 sites 



11 sites 



71,759 


1949 


11,721 


1946 


420 


1986 


1,842 


1967 


12,000 


1983 


192 


1974 


157,085 


1973 


3,880 


1983 


1,174,700 


1948 


906,500 


1948 


2,905,261 


ha 


53,324 


1974 


60,600 


1979 


133,900 


1976 


13,100 


1985 


87,739 


1976 


4,468 


1985 


8,774 


1983 


6,570 


1983 


10,705 


1970 


180,680 


1976 


208,800 


1949 


151,000 


1974 


6,803 


1976 


9,200 


1979 


21,209 


1976 


74,500 


1979 


127,000 


1976 


16,500 


1985 


23,910 


1974 


19,251 


1968 


183,300 


1979 


109,100 


1979 


16,900 


1976 


1,527,333 


ha 


4,332 


1979 


31 




19 




102 




58 




96 




3,434 


1978 


43,032 


1961 


1,575 


1981 


52,679 


ha* 


294 




2 




142 




18,466 




10 




86 




920 




567 




195 




6,718 




1,000 




100 




3,075 





285 



Gembe 1,987 

Giribe 44 

God Kwach 5 

Goye 8 

Gwasi 12,140 

Homa 1,062 

Huri Hills 30,000 

Igho Mkundu 2,000 

Igi Ikumu 100 

Imba 732 

Irizi 476 

Jaycee 10 

Jibana-kaya 150 

Kabonge 31 

Kakuzi Hill 1,800 

Kalangu 200 

Kamatira 1,910 

Kainbe-kava 57 

Kanzulu 100 

Karaini 24 

Karangu 101 

Kasigau Nursery 3 

Kauma-kaya 100 

Kaya Ribe 36 

Kegonga 9 

Kiambere 643 

Kiangombe 2 , 104 

Kianjiru 1,004 

Kibauni 2,000 

Kigala 200 

Kingatua 58 
Kiria 

Kirimiri 101 

Kitovo 161 

Kodera 694 

Kodera Forest Area 12 

Koguta 413 

Kotim 3,295 

Kuja Bull Ccunp 18 

Kwa Hill 2 

Kwisagat 1,909 

Kyawea 63 

Lambwe 2,516 

Latema 41 

Loima Hills 10,000 

Lowero Hills 121 

Lungi 9,517 

Maeta Hill 36 

Mai 515 

Maimu 500 

Makinycunbu 405 

Makutani 81 

Mango 45 

Mangrove (Mto Tana) 250 

Mangrove (Res Mwachera) 5 

Marabu-Magina 25 

Maranga 219 

Marigat 41 

Masai Mau 45,744 

Matha 100 

Mavindi 100 

Mbololo Juu 69 

Mbololo Mwambirua 18 

Mikuro 100 

Miriu 171 

Mngambua (Mwawanyu) 1,000 

Molinduko 194 

286 



Mount Kulal 45,729 

Mraru 200 

Mugabwa (Ngabwa) 405 

Mumoni 10,441 

Museve 48 

Mutha 1,785 
Muthini 

Mutuluni 596 

Mutunyi 2,035 

Muune 100 

Mwaganini 36 

Mwarungu 200 

Mworungu 400 

Ndhoani 1,387 
Ndune 

Ngangao 123 

Ngorome 348 

Njukini East 498 

Njukini West 570 
Nyamarere 

Nyasoko 22 

Nyasumbi Hill 9 

Ole Lengishu 4,633 
Onoo Water Point 

Otacho 118 

Rabai 600 

Rabuor 50 

Ramogi 283 

Ranen 67 

Rangwe 1,214 

Ronge 318 

Sagalla 70 

Sagegi Hill 8 

Salaita 41 

Sekerr 8,021 

Sodany Hill 202 

Sungululu 50 

Tana River (Bangali) 119,531 

Tana River (Herimani I S II) 97,813 

Tana River (Hewani) 2,699 

Tana River (Kokani) 61,600 

Tana River (Mbalambala) 3,910 

Tana River (Mwina) 3,357 

Tana River (Wayu I, II, III) 41,965 
Twanyoni 

Usenge 63 

Weni-mbogho 2 

Wesu 50 

Wire 392 

Yale 22 

Yekanga 100 

Subtotal 132 sites 581,261 ha* 

Proposed (Marine National Park) 

Diani Complex 250 

Subtotal 1 site 250 ha 

Proposed (National Parks) 

Arabuko Sokoke 36,000 

Marsabit 36,000 

South-Western Mau 43,032 

Subtotal 3 sites 115,032 ha 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 297 sites 6,239,161 ha* 

Proposed conservation areas 136 sites 696,543 ha* 



287 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 

'includes an unknown number of plantation reserves covering a total area of 
165,000ha. 



288 



SOMALIA 

Controlled Hunting Areas 

1 Borama District 1969 

2 Bushbush 1969 

3 Juba Left 1969 

Subtotal 3 sites ha* 

Game Reserves 

4 Bushbush 334,000 1969 

5 Geedkabehleh 10,360 1969 

6 Handera 1969 

7 Mogadishu 1969 

Subtotal 4 sites 344,360 ha* 

Nature Reserves 

8 Alifuuto (Arbowerow) 180,000 

9 Balcad 190 1988 

Subtotal 2 sites 180,190 ha 

Partial Game Reserves 

10 Belet Wein 1969 

11 Bulo Burti 1969 

12 Jowhar 1969 

13 Oddur 1969 

Subtotal 4 sites ha* 

Proposed (National Parks) 
Angole Farbiddu 

Awdhegle-Gandershe 80,000 

Daalo Forest 251,000 

Gaan Libaah 50,000 

Gezira Lagoon 5,000 
Har yiblane 

Jowhar-Warshek 220,000 

Lag Badana-Bushbush 334,000 

Lag Dere 500,000 

Las Anod-Taleh-El Chebet 800,000 
Rus Guba 

Subtotal 11 sites 2,240,000 ha* 

Proposed (Wildlife Reserves) 

Boja Swamps 110,000 
Eji-Oobale 

El Hammure 400,000 
Far Libah 

Far Wamo 140,000 

Haradere-Awale Rugno 250,000 

Harqan Dalandoole 800,000 

Hobyo 250,000 
Ras Hajun 

Zeila 400,000 

Subtotal 10 sites 2,350,000 ha* 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 13 sites 524,550 ha* 

Proposed conservation areas 21 sites 4,590,000 ha* 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



289 



SUDAN 



Game Reserves 


1 


Ashana 


2 
3 
4 


Bengangai 
Eire Kpatuos 
Chelkou 


5 
6 


Fanyikango Islanfi 
Juba 


7 

8 

9 

10 


Kidepo 
Mbarizunga 
Mongalla 
Numatina 


11 


Rahad 


12 


Sabaloka 


13 


Tokar 


14 


Zeraf 




Subtotal 



Marine National Park 

15 Sanganeb Atoll 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

16 Bandingilo 

17 Boma 

18 Dinder 

19 Nimule 

20 Radom 

21 Shambe 

22 Southern 

Subtotal 



14 sites 



1 site 



7 sites 





90,000 


1939 




17,000 


1939 




500 


1939 




550,000 


1939 




48,000 


1935 




20,000 


1939 




120,000 


1975 




1,000 


1939 




7,500 


1939 




210,000 


1939 




350,000 


1939 




116,000 


1946 




630,000 


1939 




970,000 


1939 


3, 


,130,000 ha 




26,000 


1990 




26,000 ha 


1, 


,650,000 


1986 


2 


,280,000 


1986 




890,000 


1935 




41,000 


1954 


1 


,250,000 


1980 




62,000 


1985 


2 


,300,000 


1939 


8, 


,473,000 ha 



Wildlife Sanctuaries 

23 Arkawit 

24 Arkawit-Sinkat 

25 Khartoum Sunt Forest 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



82,000 1939 
12,000 1939 
1,500 1939 
95,500 ha 



Proposed (Bird Sanctuaries) 
El Rosieris Dam 
Jebel Aulia Dam 
Khashm el Girba Dam 
Lake Abiad 
Lake Keilak 
Lake Kundi 
Lake Nubia 
Sennar Dam 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Game Reserves) 
Abroch 
Boro 
Machar 
Meshra 
Wadi Howar 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Managed Nature Reserve) 
Mukawwar 
Subtotal 



8 sites 



5 sites 



1 site 



3,000 




1,200 




10,000 




14,200 


ha* 


150,000 




450,000 




600,000 


ha* 


12,000 




12,000 


ha 



Proposed (Marine National Park) 
Port Sudan 
Subtotal 



1 site 



ha* 



Proposed (National Parks) 



290 



Lantoto 76,000 

Suakin Archipelago 

Subtotal 2 sites 76,000 ha* 

Proposed (Nature Conservation Areas) 

Imatong Mountains 100,000 

Jebel Elba 480,000 

Jebel Marra massif 150,000 

Lake Ambadi 150,000 
Lake No 

Subtotal 5 sites 880,000 ha* 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 25 sites 11,724,500 ha 

Proposed conservation areas 22 sites 1,582,200 ha* 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



291 



UGANDA 


Controlled Hunting Areas 


1 


Buhuka 


2 


Central Karamoja (Napak) 


3 


East Madi 


4 


East Teso 


5 


Kaiso Tonya 


6 


Karuma 


7 


Katonga 


8 


Llpan 


9 


North Karamoja 


10 


North Teso 


11 


Sebei 


12 


Semllki 


13 


South Karamoja 


14 


West Madi 




Subtotal 


Game Reserves 


15 


Ajai 


16 


Bokora Corridor 


17 


Bugungu 


18 


Karuma 


19 


Katonga 


20 


Kibale Forest Corridor 


21 


Kigezi 


22 


Kyambura 


23 


Manteniko 


24 


Plain Upe 


25 


Toro 




Subtotal 



14 sites 



11 sites 



National Parks 

26 Gorilla (Mgahinga) 

27 Kidepo Valley 

28 Lake Mburo 

29 Mt Rwenzori 

30 Murchison Falls 

31 Queen Elizabeth* 

Subtotal 

Nature Reserves 

32 Igwe/Luvunya 

33 Kasagala 

34 Kisanju 

35 Maruzi Hills 

36 Ngogo 

37 North Mabira 

38 Ntendure Hill 

39 Nyakafunjo 

40 Rkungiri 

41 Waibira 

42 Wambabya 

43 Zoka 

Subtotal 

Sanctuaries 

44 Difule Animal 

45 Entebbe Animal & Bird 

46 Jinja Animal 

47 Kazinga Animal 

48 Malawa Bird 

49 Mount Kei White Rhino 

50 Otze Forest White Rhino 

51 Zoka Forest Elephant 

Subtotal 



6 sites 



12 sites 



8 sites 



1,750 




22,451 




175,220 




22,690 




24,061 




227,660 




89,856 




1,079,330 




253,490 




50,400 




798,470 




83,123 




2,828,501 


ha* 


15,600 


1962 


203,363 


1964 


74,830 


1968 


71,272 


1964 


20,662 


1964 


33,915 


1964 


38,232 


1952 


15,514 


1965 


158,656 


1964 


228,715 


1964 


58,456 


1929 


919,215 


ha 


2,445 


1991 


134,400 


1962 


53,600 


1982 


61,361 


1991 


384,000 


1952 


197,800 


1952 


833,606 


ha 


1,080 


1989 


10,314 


1976 


2,117 


1960 


6,829 


1990 


7,200 




3,355 




913 


1984 


710 


1945 


268 




3,210 


1989 


3,429 


1989 


6,084 


1990 


45,509 


ha 


1,024 




5,120 




3,261 




2,243 




768 




45,220 




20,480 




20,700 




98,816 


ha 



292 



Sites of Special Scientific Interest 

52 Buto-Buviana 1,096 1989 

53 Kifu 1,419 1989 

54 Mpanga 453 1989 

55 Nile Bank 606 1989 

Subtotal 4 sites 3,574 ha 

Proposed (Nature Reserve) 

West Bugwe 3 , 054 

Subtotal 1 site 3,054 ha 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 55 sites 4,729,221 ha* 

Proposed conservation areas 1 site 3,054 ha 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



293 



Annex 7.2 Extent of notified forests by forest origin and forest 

function. Non -forest includes both degraded forest and 
lands not forested at the time of their reservation. 



Region: Africa Sub-region: East Sahelian Africa 



Name of country/state: Djibouti 

Total area (sq.km): 23200 

Land area (sq.km): 231 80 

Month/year of reference: 1 990 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



TOTAL 



Notes: There are no forest reserves in Djibouti. 



294 



Annex 7.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Ethiopia 

Total area (sq.km): 1221900 

Land area (sq . km) : 1 1 01 000 

Month/year of reference: August 1991. 



Sub-region: East Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1628738 



2443107 



TOTAL 



1628738 



2443107 



Notes: Data provided by Kidane (State Forest Conservation and 

Development Department), pers. comm., 30 August 1991. 

295 

National forest priority areas are awaiting legal gazettement. 

Most national forest priority areas serve a variety of 
production, conservation and protection functions and are 
being subdivided into relevant management blocks. 

60% of national forest priority areas are inaccessible for 
commercial purposes (EFAP, 1991). 2,443,107 ha out of a 
total of 4,071 ,845 ha (60 %) has therefore been placed in 
the protection forest category. 



295 



Annex 7.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Kenya 

Total area (sq . km) : 580370 

Land area (sq.km): 569690 

Month/year of reference: August, 1 991 . 



Sub-region: East Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(lia) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



165000 



1474079 



581261 



TOTAL 



165000 



1474079 



581261 



Notes: Data provided by Omollo & Blackett, August 1 991 ; Blackett, 

March, 1992. 

Forest reserves in Kenya have not been classified under the 
forest function categories above. However, the government 
banned all felling of indigenous trees in 1986. Therefore, 
the area of forest reserves, apart from the 1 65,000 ha of 
industrial plantations, has been placed under conservation 
forest. 

There is about 53,000 ha of nature reserves found within 
forest reserves and constitutes part of the total in the 
above table. 



296 



Annex 7.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub-region: East Sahelian Africa 

Name of country/state: Somalia 

Total area (sq.km): 637660 

Land area (sq.km): 627340 

Month/year of reference: October 1 991 . 

FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 

TOTAL 



Notes: According to Simonetta (pers. comm., 1 987), there are 27 

"protected forests" in the country. No further data is 
available. 



297 



Annex 7.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Sudan 

Total area (sq.km): 250581 

Land area (sq.l<m): 2376000 



Montii/year of reference: September, 1991. 



Sub-region: East Salnelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1270000 1600000 



TOTAL 



1270000 



1600000 



Notes: Data provided by AN, pers. comm., 1991. 

According to the Central Forests Act, forest reserves serve 
protection/conservation and production functions. 



298 



Annex 7.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Uganda 

Total area (sq.km): 235880 

Land area (sq.km): 199550 

Montli/year of reference: l\/iay 1 990 



Sub-region: East Sahelian Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



357510 



25900 



131827 



114491 



806708 



3054 



TOTAL 



383410 



131827 



114491 



806708 



3054 



Notes: Data provided by Byarugaba (Forest Department), pers. 

comm., 21 May 1990; Kiwanuka (Forest Department), pers. 
comm., July 1990; Department of Environment Protection, 1992. 

The total area of nature reserves (45,509 ha) which occurs 
within natural production forest is included under 
conservation forest. Conservation forest also includes 2 
protection forests (1 25,625 ha), 4 sites of special 
scientific interest (3,574 ha) and 461 savanna woodland 
reserves (632,000 ha). 

One nature reserve constitutes the total in the proposed 
conservation forest category, while the 1 31 ,827 ha in the 
proposed production forest category is forest parks 
(Kiwanuka, pers. comm., 1991). 

The 1 14,491 ha of protection forest is located in tropical 
high forest (production). 

Several forest resen/es have dual status as game reserves, 
animal sanctuaries or national par^ 



8 WEST AFRICA 



8 WEST AFRICA 



Benin, Cdte d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo 



8.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

Protection of nature in West Africa has its origins in oral customary law, traditional rules and taboos concerning 
hunting. Examples from Ghana include the protection of snails and tree s(>ecies in sacred groves of the closed 
forest zone, and the establishment of a monkey sanctuary at Boabeng-Fiema in the Brong-Ahafo region. At 
Boabeng-Fiema, mona and black and white colobus monkeys are considered sacred and are protected as such. 

The first protected areas were created in the early 20th century, when most of the countries in the region were 
under colonial rule. Colonial authorities in the subregion were Britain (Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone) and 
France (Benin, Cote d'lvoire, Guinea, Togo). Liberia is an exception in not having been subject to colonial 
rule. 



8.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

Legal provisions for the establishment of protected areas have been passed in all countries within the subregion. 
These are summarised in Table 8. 1 and reviewed below. 

Conservation areas in the subregion are designated either under the forest law, or under separate wildlife law. 
In both cases, designations are generally similar and follow those given in the African Convention of 1968. 
This provides definitions of strict nature reserve, national park and special reserve (which includes other areas 
such as game reserve, partial reserve, sanctuary and soil, water and forest reserve). 

8.2.1 Forestry Sector 

Policy Information on forest policy is only available for Ghana, Guinea, and Sierra Leone. In general, the role 
of forests, both in serving a conservation function and as a natural resource, is recognised in all three countries. 

Legislation Forest policy and forest law in colonial Africa were based on experience from continental Europe, 
and reflect the idea, common at the time, that nature provides a readily exploited resource. Legislation 
principally concerned land tenure, and forest exploitation. 

In British colonies, the early administrators followed the pattern of reservation of forest lands adopted in India. 
This mainly concerned establishment within a legal framework of a permanent forest estate the boundaries and 
use of which could only be amended by the highest authority in the land. 

In francophone countries within the subregion, legislation was derived directly from France, a country with a 
long experience of temperate forestry. This legislation was based on the principle of Roman legislation, 
according to which any unoccupied land where existence of written ownership documents could not be proved, 
belonged to the state. All forest lands were thus declared state property, although local populations exercised 
many usage rights. Contradiction between oral customary law and the written regulations of the forest law 
resulted in a general reluctance of local people to accept the delineation of reserve forests. Since independence, 
French-speaking countries have tried to amend the regulations on forest ownership. However, as a general rule, 
the whole forest area is still considered to be state property (foret domaniale), the concept of private forests 
being virtually non-existent. 

Throughout francophone countries, the concept still exists of state forests comprising classified forests and 
protected forests. Classified forests are gazetted areas in which customary rights of use are generally permitted, 
but which are otherwise generally protected. Protected forests comprise that part of the state forest not subject 
to individual classification orders, which therefore do not appear in Table 8.1. Within protected forests, 

300 



uncontrolled clearing and unauthorised logging are forbidden, as well as the regulation of customary rights 
which the population could otherwise exercise without restraint. 

Most current forest laws within the subregion contain some reference to the multiple role and uses of forests 
for environmental protection and raw material production. 

Information on existing forest legislation is not available for Togo, but a new Code de la Foret et de la Faune 
is due to be passed, which will make Togo the only coimtry within the subregion not to have separate forest 
and wildlife legislation. 

8.2.2 Wildlife Sector 

Policy Information on wildlife policy is available only for Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. In these 
countries, the importance of preserving wildlife is stressed. The need to ensure that local people benefit from 
protected areas is also recognised, for example, by permitting the use of protected areas as a source of 
bushmeat. 

L^islation All countries within the region, other than Togo, have passed wildlife legislation designating 
protected areas. There is often close interlinkage between this and the forest legislation. Present nature 
conservation legislation in the subregion generally follows the 1968 (Algiers) African Convention. Designations 
are for national parks, strict nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, hunting reserves and sport hunting reserves, 
definitions of each category generally being similar throughout the region. The highest degree of protection 
is given in strict nature reserves, where access is only permitted for management purposes and scientific 
research. National parks are open to tourism, but residence is not permitted. Sanctuaries are for the protection 
of named species. Reserves in which hunting is permitted comprise himting reserves, where subsistence himting 
is allowed, and sport hunting reserves, where hunting for sport is permitted, usually following purchase of a 
permit. In general, many categories of conservation area have been defined for which there are as yet no 
examples on the ground. 

8.2.3 Other Sectors 

Not applicable 



8.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 

Departments responsible for administration of protected areas are given in Table 8.1. Categories are listed 
according to the language used in the original legislation. A glossary of terms (French, Portuguese and French) 
is given in Part I. 

8.3.1 Forestry Sector 

Administration of forestry is the responsibility of forest departments in the respective countries (Table 8. 1). 
Most have histories dating back to colonial times, earlier this century. For all countries for which data is 
available, the forestry sector is responsible for at least some of the conservation areas. 

8.3.2 Wildlife Sector 

Conservation areas are generally managed under a single administrative organisation within the forest 
departments of countries within the subregion. The Wildlife Division has been upgraded to departmental status 
in Ghana, and recommendation has been made for upgrading the wildlife and national parks section in Liberia. 
Separate wildlife sections have not been established in Guinea or Togo, conservation areas in these countries 
being administered by the Forestry Sector. 

8.3.3 Other Sectors 

Not applicable 

301 



8.3.4 Non-Govemmental Organisations 

Togo provides the only example in the subregion of management being entrusted to a non-governmental 
organisation. Management of Fazao-Malfakassa Faunal Reserve has been passed to the F. Weber Convention 
for a period of 25 years, starting in 1990 (Bleich, 1991). 



8.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 

The managed areas system is mapped (where possible) for each country within the subregion, in Figs 8. 1-8 
(Part III). Details of individual conservation areas are given in Annex 8. 1 which serves as a key to the maps. 

8.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 

Coverage Data for the subregion, although far from up-to-date, is rather more complete than for the 
neighbouring subregions of West Sahel and Cental Africa. Managed areas within the forestry sector account 
for approximately 9.4% of the total area of West Africa (Table 8.2). As available data is incomplete, this 
should be considered a minimum figure. Managed areas within the forestry sectors of the subregion are most 
extensive in Liberia (13 %), although this area comprises solely production forest. By contrast, in Benin, which 
ranks second in this table, all the 12% of land managed within the forestry sector comprises conservation forest. 
Of the countries for which data was available, Togo has the lowest figure (1.8%) for managed areas within the 
forest sector. 

8.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 

Coverage There are over 386 legally designated conservation areas in West Africa covering a total area of over 
14 million ha or 6.7 % of the subregion (Table 8.3). Approximately 8.7 % of these conservation areas are under 
total protection, covering 3.1% of the subregion. The rest are partially protected. The totally protected areas 
tend to be much larger than the partially protected areas, such that the area covered by the two categories is 
roughly equal. 

The 10% target of total area under protection for conservation purposes has been reached only by Benin, Cote 
d'lvoire and Togo. Benin has by far the largest protected areas system within the region, due to several large 
reserves in the north of the country. The protected area systems of Liberia and Sierra Leone are the smallest 
in the subregion, covering less than 2% of each country. 

Representativeness Representativeness of the protected area systems within the subregion varies widely. The 
systems of Cote d'lvoire and Togo are extensive, and are considered to be adequate, particularly as most habitat 
types are represented. Two of the habitats protected within Cote d'lvoire are only protected in one other 
country: dense humid Guinean forest in Ghana and mangroves in Senegal. The systems of Ghana, Guinea and 
Nigeria are comparable, although less extensive, in being fairly well dispersed throughout the countries, and 
representing most habitat types. 

Although Benin has by far the most extensive protected areas system within the subregion, distribution is very 
uneven, all areas being in the north of the country, on the border with Burkina Faso and Niger. 

Sierra Leone has a small protected areas system. However, when sites which are currently proposed are finally 
gazetted, all the vegetation types in the country will be covered. 

Ekrofloristic zone analysis [pending data from FAO] 

Int^rity Data in Table 8.4 indicate that conservation areas under the wildlife sector tend to be large or very 
large throughout the subregion. Mean size of totally protected areas is in all cases at least double that of 
partially protected areas. National parks form the bulk of the former category and, by definition, they tend to 
be relatively large areas to provide a range of services. 



302 



In contrast, mean size of conservation areas within the forestry sector tend to be far smaller, throughout the 
subregion. 

Effectiveness Apart from inadequate representation of the subregion's biological diversity within existing 
conservation area networks, conservation efforts are limited by weaknesses in policy, legislation, institutional 
support and management. Existing legislation frequently needs strengthening or updating (Table 8.6). 
Management plans for conservation areas within the region generally do not appear to exist. 

The general lack of commitment of resources for conservation areas is largely responsible for many of the 
deficiencies in their management, which generally is ineffective or in some cases non-existent. Enforcement 
is very often handicapped by the absence of clearly-demarcated boundaries that are easily recognisable on the 
ground. Encroachment by people is ubiquitous, few conservation areas being free of this problem. 

8.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 

The forestry sector is directly responsible for the vast majority (90%) of the conservation areas within the 
subregion, which cover a total area of approximately 7 million ha or 3.4% of the region. However, these 
conservation areas largely comprise classified forests, which ia general are small. Therefore, the total area for 
which the forestry service is responsible is actually slightly less than the area covered by the 31 conservation 
areas for which the wildlife sector is responsible. 

Data in Table 8.2 suggest that the contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation is mini mal (3.3%) 
in terms of the total area of the subregion under protection and conservation forest. However, this figure is 
almost certainly minimal, and the contribution of the forestry sector to protection and conservation is probably 
higher than suggested by the statistics because data are incomplete. 

The contribution of the forestry sector to conservation is further underestimated, as no figures are available of 
the extent of protected forests, which are legislated for in all francophone countries within the subregion. 
Protected forests comprise virtually all land outside gazetted areas, in which felling, amongst other things is 
prohibited, and which thus serve a conservation fiinction. 



8.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 

8.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 

There appear to be relatively few official proposals to expand the conservation area network. Figures in Table 
8.3 show a total for 54 proposed sites covering l,176,529ha or 0.6% of the total area of the subregion. 
Approximately equal numbers fall within the wildlife and forestry sectors, although the wildlife sector represents 
the bulk of the area covered. 

8.5.2 Other National Initiatives 

Strengthening networks No information 

Overcoming Ek:onomic Constraints Funding is a major factor which limits the effective management of 
conservation areas throughout the region. 

Improving Management Throughout the region an increase in fiinding is necessary to enable adequate 
management. Problems in recruiting sufficient trained professional staff are common. Guinea has a particular 
problem in having an excess of staff, who are largely unmotivated. Reducing the numbers and increasing 
training is considered a priority task. 



303 



8.5.3. International Initiatives 

Conventions and Programmes All countries within the region, apart from Togo, participate in one or more 
international conventions and programmes concerned with conservation areas (Table 8.S). Only Ghana is party 
to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar 
Convention), hence Owabi, Ghana's only Ramsar site, is the single Ramsar site within the subregion. 

Cooperative Agreements Guinea and Cote d'lvoire cooperate in the management of Mount Nimba, which 
is a joint World Heritage site. A Conseil d'Entente with Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote d'lvoire and Togo provides 
an administrative structure for cooperation between neighbouring countries, although the relevance of this to 
managed areas is not clear. A proposal to set up a single authority to manage the three contiguous "W" national 
parks in Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger, totalling over 1 million ha, and to raise hmds for its operation, is 
being considered. 



8.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 

Priorities for conservation action in the subregion were reviewed in the now dated lUCN Systems review of the 
Afrotropical Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1987) and the accompanying Action Strategy (lUCN, 1987). 

Priorities have been reviewed more recently (lUCN, 1992) for the IV World Congress on National Parks and 
Protected Areas. These are generalised, recognising that translation of priorities into action will vary according 
to national conservation objectives, history and political will. They provide a foundation to the more specific 
priorities identified in this report and summarised in Table 8.6. The Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Action 
on UNCED Negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution to the African Position (Anon, 1991), concerning 
environmental degradation within the Sahel, was drawn up for UNCED 1992, following two consultative 
meetings of 22 Sudano-Sahelian countries, including several from the West Africa subregion. The report 
highlights the link between poverty and mismanagement of natural resources, particularly exploitation of 
marginal lands and deforestation. Recommendations include action to be taken at both the international and 
African level. 

In conclusion, progress in the subregion has been seriously hampered by the environmental conditions (i.e. 
drought), and the demand on resources by rapidly growing human populations. Although mostly aware of the 
need for conservation area networks, well-fimded institutions and up-to-date policy and legislation, governments 
in the subregion have generally not been able to ensure these are established. 



304 



REFERENCES 

d 

Anon. (1991). Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Action on UNCED Negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution 

to the African Position. Prepared by the 22 Sudano-Sahelian Countries. CILSS, UNSO, IGADD. 22 pp. 
Bleich, M. (1991). Rapport de la saison 90-91. Pare national de Malfakassa-Fazao/Togo. Unpublished. 

14 pp. 
lUCN (1987). Action strategy for protected areas in the j^otropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 56 pp. 
Frame, G.W. and Tanghanwaye, N.N. (1991). African Elephant Action Plan Togo National Plan for Elephant 

Conservation. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Lome, Togo. 77 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Afrotropical Realm. 

lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 14 pp. 
Stuart, S.N. and Adams, R.J. (1990). Biodiversity in Sub-saharan j^ca and its islands: conservation, 

management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 242 pp. 



305 



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Table 8.2 Extent of notified natural forests, classified by forest function. Units are in sq. km, 

followed by % total area. Full data, with sources, are given in Annex X.2. 



Country Total FOREST FUNCTION 

SUBREGION area Production Protection Conservation Total 



Benin 


112,620 










13,737 (12.2) 


13,737 (12.2) 


C6te d'lvoire 


322,460 


23,787 (7.4) 







12,222 


(3.8) 


36,009 (11.2) 


Ghana 


238,540 


12,560 (5.3) 


6,396 


(2.7) 







18,956 (7.9) 


Guinea 


245,860 





8,931 


(3.6) 


1,635 


(0.7) 


10,566 (4.3) 


Liberia 


111,370 


14,453 (13.0) 












14,453 (13.0) 


Nigeria 


923,770 


76,492 (8.3) 







20,988 


(2.3) 


97,480 (10.5) 


Sierra Leone 


71,740 


2,853 (4.0) 












2,853 (4.0) 


Togo 


56,790 










1,042 


(1.8) 


1,042 (1.8) 



WEST 
AFRICA 2,083,150 130,145 (6.2) 15,327 (0.7) 49,624 (2.4) 195,096 (9.4) 



309 



Table 8.3 Extent of notified and proposed conservation areas, classified by sector and national 
designation. Management categories are assigned to designations based on national 
legislation (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total 
protection with no extractive uses). Totals for proposed sites may include areas of 
properties already protected but proposed for upgrading to higher conservation status. 
Details of individual properties are given in Annex 2. N is the total number of conservation 
areas. 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



BENIN (112,620 sg. km) 



Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Reforestation Area 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Hunting Zone 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 
p 


45 

7 

52 


1,373,707 

2,567 

1,376,274 

( 12.2) 







( 





0.0) 


p 

T 


3 
2 
5 


510,000 

843,500 

1,353,500 

( 12.0) 







( 





0.0) 




57 


2,729,774 

( 24.2) 





( 



0.0) 



C5TE D'lVOIRE (322,460 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Classified forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 

Botanical Reserve 

Fauna and Flora Reserve 

National Park 

Partial Faunal Reserve 

Strict Nature Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

GHANA (238,540 sg. km) 



p 


63 


1,222,190 












63 


1,222,190 














( 3.8) 




( 


0.0) 


p 


1 


7,350 










p 


1 


123,000 










T 


8 


1,762,500 










P 


1 


95,000 










T 


1 


5,000 












12 


1,992,850 














( 6.2) 




( 


0.0) 




75 


3,215,040 














( 10.0) 




( 


0.0) 



Forest Sector 

Forest Reserve 

Protection Working Circle 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 

Game Production Reserve 

National Park 

Strict Nature Reserve 

Wildlife Sanctuary 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 



P 


23 




209,623 


2 


17,011 


p 


? 




430,000 










23 




639,623 
( 2.7) 


2 


17,011 
( 0.1) 


p 


5 




136,080 


1 


15,359 


T 


5 


1 


,029,795 


1 


21,264 


T 


1 




32,400 








P 


3 




12,702 


1 


1,200 




14 


1 


,210,977 

( 5.1) 


3 


37,823 
( 0.2) 



310 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Totals 

(% total area) 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



37 1,850,600 

( 7.8) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



54,834 
( 0.3) 



GUINEA (245,860 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Faunal Reserve 

National Park 

Strict Nature Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

LIBERIA (111,370 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

National Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
National Park 
Nature Conservation Unit 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

NIGERIA (923,770 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 
Game Reserve 
Strict Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 


131 




893,076 










p 












5 


14 * 


T 


1 




38,200 










T 


2 




125,300 




1 


5,032 




134 


1 


,056,576 
( 4. 


3) 


6 


5,046 * 
( 0.0) 




134 


1 


,056,576 
( 4. 


3) 


6 


5,046 * 
( 0.0) 



T 
P 











( 0.0) 



129,230 

129,230 
( 1-2) 

129,230 
( 1.2) 



4 


453,400 


4 


453,400 




( 4.1) 


1 


55,400 


2 


46,364 


3 


101,764 




( 0.9) 


7 


555,164 




( 5.0) 



P 


26 


2,040,782 


13 


371,920 * 


P 


8 


58,013 










34 


2,098,795 

( 2.3) 


13 


371,920 * 
( 0.4) 


T 


6 


2,114,396 


1 


29,700 




6 


2,114,396 

( 2.3) 


1 


29,700 
( 0.0) 




40 


4,213,191 

( 4.6) 


14 


401,620 * 
( 0.4) 



SIERRA LEONE (71,740 sq. km) 

Wildlife Sector 
Game Reserve 
Game Sanctuary 
National Park 
Strict Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 


1 


1,200 


6 


42,958 


p 








2 


7,511 


T 


1 


80,813 


5 


70,573 


T 








9 


38,823 




2 


82,013 
( 1.1) 


22 


159,865 
( 2.2) 




2 


82,013 
( 1.1) 


22 


159,865 
( 2.2) 



311 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National ciesignation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notif iecj 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



TOGO (56,790 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Faunal Reserve 

Forest reserve 

National Park 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 


9 


290,381 





p 


28 


104,157 





T 


3 


357,290 







40 


751,828 
( 13.2) 







40 


751,828 
( 13.2) 






0) 




0.0) 



WEST AFRICA (2,083,150 sq. km) - summary by sector 

Forestry Sector 346 

(% total area) 
Wildlife Sector 40 

(% total area) 
Additional Sector or sector unknown 

(% total area) 



7,145,286 


25 


847,377 * 


( 3.4) 




( 0.4) 


6,882,966 


29 


329,152 


( 3.3) 




( 0.2) 











( 0.0) 




( 0.0) 



WEST AFRICA (2,083,150 sq. km) - summary by management category 

Total protection 

(% total area) 
Partial protection 

(% total area) 
Degree of protection unknown 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



31 


6,518,424 


18 


220,792 




( 3.1) 




( 0.1) 


355 


7,509,828 


36 


955,737 * 




( 3.6) 




( 0.5) 
















( 0.0) 




( 0.0) 


386 


14,028,252 


54 


1,176,529 * 




( 6.7) 




( 0.6) 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data for either number of sites or 
area covered. 



312 



Table 8.4(a) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive 
uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) 
Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 


Number 


in 


each 


size class (ha) 


a) Forestry Sector 


sxze 
(ha) 


<1000 


1001 
10 


,000 


10001- 
100,000 >100,000 


BENIN 


















Notified sites 


P 

Total 


52 
52 


26,466 
26,466 


19 
19 




20 
20 


8 
8 


5 
5 


GHANA 


















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


P 

Total 

P 
Total 


23 

23 

2 

2 


9,114 
9,114 
8,505 
8,505 


8 
8 






7 
7 
1 
1 


8 
8 

1 
1 








GUINEA 


















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


3 
131 
134 

1 
3 
4 


54,500 
6,817 
7,884 
5,032 
4 
1,261 



61 
61 

3 
3 





46 
46 

1 


1 


2 
24 
26 





1 


1 






LIBERIA 


















Proposed sites 


P 
Total 


4 
4 


113,350 
113,350 












2 

2 


2 

2 


NIGERIA 


















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


P 
Total 

P 
Total 


34 
34 
10 
10 


61,729 
61,729 
37,192 
37,192 


8 
8 






5 
5 

2 
2 


12 
12 

7 
7 


9 
9 

1 
1 


TOGO 


















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


3 
9 

12 


119,096 
32,264 
53,972 




1 
1 




1 
2 

3 




5 
5 


2 

1 
3 


WEST AFRICA 


















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


6 
249 
255 


86,798 
19,550 
21,133 



97 
97 




1 
80 
81 


2 

57 
59 


3 
15 
18 


Proposed sites 


T 

P 

Total 


1 
19 
20 


5,032 
44,333 
42,368 



3 

3 




1 
3 
4 



10 
10 



3 
3 


NnfP that N (the tntal mimb'"" "f rrm-iPn^Urm arpas') lirtPK not npppcgarily pqiiatP 







to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 
Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



313 



Table 8.4(b) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive 
uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) 
Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 


Number 


in each 


size class (ha) 


b) Wildlife Sector 


sxze 
(ha) 


<1000 


1001- 
10,000 


10001- 
100,000 >100,000 


BENIN 
















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


2 

3 
5 


421,750 
170,000 
270,700 

















2 
3 
5 


C6TE D'lVOIRE 
















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


9 

3 

12 


196,388 

75,116 

166,070 







2 

1 
3 


4 

1 
5 


3 

1 
4 


GHANA 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


6 
8 
14 
1 
2 
3 


177,032 
18,597 
86,498 
21,264 
8,279 
12,607 




1 
1 





1 

3 
4 



1 
1 


2 
4 
6 

1 
1 
2 


3 

3 





LIBERIA 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


1 

1 
1 
2 
3 


129,230 

129,230 

55,400 

23,182 

33,921 



















1 
2 
3 


1 
1 





NIGERIA 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 
Total 

T 
Total 


6 
6 

1 
1 


352,399 

352,399 

29,700 

29,700 














1 
1 
1 
1 


5 
5 




SIERRA LEONE 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


1 
1 
2 

14 
8 

22 


80,813 
1,200 

41,006 
7,814 
6,308 
7,266 












1 

1 

11 

7 
18 


1 

1 
3 

1 
4 










WEST AFRICA 
















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


25 
15 
40 


239,905 

59,022 

172,074 




1 

1 


3 
5 
8 


8 

5 

13 


14 

4 

18 


Proposed sites 


T 

P 

Total 


17 
12 
29 


12,691 

9,449 

11,350 







11 

8 

19 


6 

4 

10 








314 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



315 



Table 8.5 State parties to international (and regional) conventions or programmes concerning the 
conservation of natural areas, together with the number of properties (natural or mixed 
natural/cultural in the case of the World Heritage Convention) recognised under respective 
conventions in brackets. 





World Heritage 
Convention 


Biosphere 
Reserves* 


Ramsar 
Convention 


African 
Convention 


B6nm 


1982 (0) 


1986 (1) 


- 


S 


C6te d'lvoire 


1981 (3) 


1977 (2) 


- 


R 


Ghana 


1975 (0) 


1983 (1) 


1988 (1) 


R 


Guinea 


1979 (1) 


1980 (2) 


- 


S 


Liberia 


- 


- 


- 


R 


Nigeria 


1974 (0) 


1977 (1) 


- 


R 


Sierra Leone 


- 


- 


- 


S 


Togo 


- 


- 


- 


R 



'Unesco MAB Project 8 
R = ratified 
S = signatory 



316 



E a 

e 8 



e8 
■5 a 



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■o o 

.3 « 

I 
.a y 

5^« 



il 

§ z 
Eg 

1.2 



11 
§1 



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1.1 



- -a 

c S 

U 75 

u > 

oo > 

E ■ 

o 

.3 



e 
i 
S- 

Q 






u CO 



o .3 .2 
E « S 

a I § 



E S 



It 

1 i 
I § 



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13 
O 



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o 
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s 



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B 
O 

1 

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■a 

B 

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a 
ti 
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I 

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I E 



3 e 



XI 



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» 

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w c o 

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a .S S 

p :2 3 

S II o 
W i E 



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E 

" J 

S E 

a. i 

ii § 

X S 

UJ « 



P 



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2-S 



a. 

Z 



3 US 
"§ 8 

Q. 

tS 8 



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5 






3 

o 



■s 

8 



^ O 

El 



Pi ji 



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•2 -a 

i-2 

II 
II! 



oo S 

O OO 

iS2 



.3 2 5 

Sot 

'> s 

«i| i 

tn ^ 00 
"S " i- 

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^ I " 

- 1 £ 
i al 

a £ 5 

»3 ^ K 



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o 

00 

o 

H 



Annex 8.1 List of conservation areas. Lx)catlons of most notified conservation areas are sliown in tlie 
accompanying maps in Part HI 



BENIN 



Classified Forests 


1 


Agoua 


2 


Agrimey 


3 


Atcherigbe 


4 


Atlantique 


5 


Bassila 


6 


Bellefoungou 


7 


Birni 


8 


Boko 


9 


Bonou 


10 


Dan 


11 


Dassa-zoume 


12 


Djigbe 


13 


Dogo 


14 


Donga 


15 


Gougoun 


16 


Guene 


17 


Itchede 


18 


Ketou 


19 


Kilir 


20 


L'Alibori Superieur 


21 


La Lama Nord 


22 


La Lama-Sud 


23 


La Sota 


24 


Logozohe 


25 


Mekrou 


26 


Mont Kouffe 


27 


N'Dali 


28 


Ouari Maro 


29 


Ouedo 


30 


Oueme Boukou 


31 


Oueme Superieur 


32 


Ouenou-Benou 


33 


Pahou 


34 


Penessoulou 


35 


Sakarou 


36 


Sakete 


37 


Savalou 


38 


Seme 


39 


Serou 


40 


Soubroukou 


41 


Tchaourou 


42 


Tchaourou Gokana 


43 


Toui 


44 


Tozoun 


45 


Trois Rivieres 




Subtotal 


Hunting Zones 


46 


Atakora 


47 


Djona 


48 


Pendjari 




Subtotal 


National Parks 


49 


Boucle de la Pendjari 


50 


W du Benin 




Subtotal 





75,300 


1953 




2,800 


1945 




3,150 


1942 




900 


1953 




2,500 


1943 




1,300 


1943 




3,200 


1943 




300 


1952 




197 


1946 




1,237 


1942 




2,645 


1945 




4,300 


1942 




31,850 


1955 




250 


1943 




73,200 


1950 




1,300 


1942 




191 


1945 




11,000 


1945 




50 


1943 




256,000 


1955 




6,500 


1946 




9,750 


1942 




53,000 


1947 




1,200 


1942 




9,320 


1950 




180,300 


1949 




4,721 


1942 




107,500 


1946 




586 


1944 




20,500 


1954 




177,542 


1954 




30,000 


1943 




765 


1940 




5,470 


1942 




240 


1954 




60 


1946 




1,015 


1945 




1,290 


1943 




498 


1946 




84 


1946 




1,100 


1942 




2,000 


1948 




29,030 


1942 




66 


1942 




259,500 


1949 


45 sites 


1,373,707 


ha 




122,000 


1980 




188,000 


1980 




200,000 


1980 


3 sites 


510,000 


ha 



2 sites 



275,500 1961 
568,000 1954 
843,500 ha 



Reforestation Areas 



318 



51 Abomey 

52 Barage de Natitingou 

53 Kandi 

54 Kouandi 

55 Natitingou 

56 Parakou 

57 Taneka 

Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







173 




1945 






345 




1952 






250 




1942 






250 




1942 






203 




1946 






256 




1949 






1,090 




1951 


7 


sites 


2,567 


ha 




57 


sites 


2,729,774 


ha 







sites 




ha 





319 



COTE D ' IVOIRE 



Botanical Reserve 


1 


Divo 




Subtotal 


Fauna and Flora Reserve 


2 


Haut Bandaina 




Subtotal 


National Parks 


3 


Azagny 


4 


Banco 


5 


Comoe 


6 


lies Ehotile 


7 


Marahoue 


8 


Mont Peko 


9 


Mont Sangbe 


10 


Tai 




Subtotal 



1 site 



1 site 



7,350 1975 
7,350 ha 



123,000 1973 
123,000 ha 



8 sites 



19,000 

3,000 

1,150,000 

10,500 

101,000 

34,000 

95,000 

350,000 

1,762,500 ha 



1981 
1953 
1968 
1974 
1968 
1968 
1976 
1973 



Partial Faunal Reserve 
11 N'Zo 

Subtotal 



1 site 



95,000 1972 
95,000 ha 



Strict Nature Reserve 
12 Mont Nimba 
Subtotal 



1 site 



5,000 1944 
5,000 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



12 sites 
sites 



1,992,850 ha 
ha 



320 



GHANA 



I S II) 



Forests Reserves 

1 Abasumba 

2 Aboben Hill 

3 Abutia Hills 

4 Ahirasu (Blocks 

5 Akrobong 

6 Anhwiaso North 

7 Bombi 

8 Daka Headwaters 

9 Dede 

10 Gambaga East 

11 Gambaga West I 

12 Gambaga West II 

13 Krokosua Hills FoR* 

14 Kumbo 

15 Mar ago River 

16 Nasia Tributaries 

17 Nuale 

18 Obotumfo Hills 

19 Sapawsu 

20 Sekondi Waterworks (Blocks II & III) 

21 Sissili North 

22 Sukusuku 

23 Volta River 

Subtotal 

Game Production Reserves 

24 Ankasa 

25 Bia 

26 Gbele 

27 Kalakpa 

28 Shai Hills 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

29 Bia 

30 Bui 

31 Digya 

32 Mole 

33 Nini-Suhien 

Subtotal 

Strict Nature Reserve 

34 Kogyae 

Subtotal 



23 sites 



5 sites 



5 sites 



1 site 



104 


1927 


725 


1962 


899 


1939 


104 


1927 


260 


1930 


363 


1926 


148 


1963 


14,566 


1952 


5,110 


1955 


12,753 


1948 


11,500 


1954 


22,222 


1968 


48,170 


1935 


16,449 


1956 


8,806 


1954 


31,469 


1956 


5,180 


1954 


155 


1930 


1,531 


1957 


1,010 


1938 


8,288 


1940 


14,760 


1972 


5,051 


1940 


209,623 ha 




20,736 


1976 


22,810 


1974 


54,691 


1975 


32,400 


1975 


5,443 


1976 


136,080 ha 




7,770 


1974 


207,360 


1971 


312,595 


1971 


491,440 


1971 


10,630 


1976 


1,029,795 ha 




32,400 


1976 


32,400 ha 





Wildlife Sanctuaries 

35 Boabeng-Fiema 

36 Bomfobiri 

37 Owabi 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



260 1974 
5,184 1975 
7,258 1971 
12,702 ha 



Proposed (Forest Reserves) 
Greenbelt 

Kulpawn Tributaries 
Subtotal 



2 sites 



1,471 
15,540 
17,011 ha 



Proposed (Game Production Reserve) 
Assin-Attandanso 
Subtotal 



1 site 



15,359 
15,359 ha 



Proposed (National Park) 
Kakum 

Subtotal 



1 site 



21,264 
21,264 ha 



321 



Proposed (Wildlife Sanctuary) 
Agumatsa 
Subtotal 



1 site 



1,200 
1,200 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



37 sites 
5 sites 



1,420,600 ha 
54,834 ha 



322 



GUINEA 



Classified Forests 

1 Badiar-sud 

2 Bagata 

3 Bakoum 

4 Balayan-Souroumba 

5 Bambaya 

6 Ban! 

7 Banie 

8 Bantarawel 

9 Baro 

10 Beauvois 

11 Beko 

12 Bellel 

13 Binti 

14 Botokoly 

15 Boula 

16 Chutes de Kinkon 

17 Chutes de Tinkisso 

18 Colline-Macenta 

19 Counsignaki 

20 Damakhania 

21 Dara-Labe 

22 Darawondi 

23 Darou-salam 

24 Diecke 

25 Diego Tamba 

26 Diogoure 

27 Dixinn 

28 Djimbera (Bantiguel) 

29 Dokoro 

30 Fanafanako 

31 Fello Digui 

32 Fello Diouma 

33 Fello Sounga 

34 Fello-Selouma 

35 Fello-Touni 

36 Fitacouna 

37 Fougoumba 

38 Foye-Madinadian 

39 Galy 

40 Gambi 

41 Gangan 

42 Gban 

43 Gbinia 

44 Gioumba 

45 Goto 

46 Gouba 

47 Goulgoul-Kankande 

48 Grandes Chutes 

49 Gueme Sangan 

50 Gueroual 

51 Guewel 

52 Guirila 

53 Haute-Komba 

54 Hoo 

55 Kabela 

56 Kakrima 

57 Kala 

58 Kaloum 

59 Kambia 

60 Khabitaye 

61 Kolumba 

62 Koni 

63 Konkoure Fetto 

64 Kora 



7,300 


1956 


2,000 


1942 


28,000 


1951 


25,000 


1951 


336 


1951 


18,900 


1952 


23,160 


1956 


675 


1936 


8,000 


1943 


2,300 


1945 


800 


1943 


1,350 


1944 


410 


1944 


2,300 


1942 


27,500 


1955 


320 


1955 


1,100 


1944 


780 


1945 


13,700 


1955 


425 


1944 


375 


1943 


30 


1978 


17,474 


1954 


64,000 


1945 


70 


1946 


1,000 


1943 


3,900 


1944 


700 


1983 


7,800 


1952 


380 


1986 


2,925 


1967 


418 


1936 


6,700 


1953 


4,000 


1955 


100 


1983 


95 


1942 


795 


1944 


1,595 


1954 


1,500 


1943 


15,500 


1955 


9,000 


1942 


500 




6,175 


1945 


12,580 


1956 


120 




950 


1945 


6,800 


1954 


13,400 


1944 


2,740 


1955 


300 


1944 


600 


1936 


8,100 


1954 


1,300 


1944 


150 




3,920 


1955 


238 


1955 


240 


1944 


672 


1955 


520 


1944 


4,900 


1944 


1,230 


1943 


116 




1,200 


1945 


750 


1955 



323 



65 


Koulou 


66 


Koumban-Kourou 


67 


Kourani-Oulete- Dienne 


68 


Kouya 


69 


Koyoto 


70 


L'Amana 


71 


Laine 


72 


Lefarani 


73 


Ley-Billel 


74 


Loffa 


75 


Lombha 


76 


Lombonye 


77 


Mafou 


78 


Makona 


79 


Mankiti 


80 


Milo 


81 


Mir ire 


82 


Miti Kambadaga 


83 


Mombeya 


84 


Mt. Balan 


85 


Mt . Balandougou 


86 


Mt . Banan 


87 


Mt. Bero 


88 


Mt. Gouba 


89 


Mt. Konossou 


90 


Mt. Kouya 


91 


Mt . Loura 


92 


Mt. Salia 


93 


Mt. Tetini 


94 


Mt. Yonon 


95 


N'Dama 


96 


N'Guidou 


97 


Nimba Piedmont 


98 


Nono 


99 


Nzo 


100 


Ore-Djima 


101 


Ouladin 


102 


Paradji 


103 


Pic de Fon 


104 


Pic de Tibe 


105 


Pincely 


106 


Pissonon 


107 


Sala 


108 


Samba la "Ton" 


109 


Sambalankan 


110 


Selly-Koro 


111 


Sere 


112 


Serima 


113 


Sierra-Fore 


114 


Sincery-Ourssa 


115 


Singuelema 


116 


Sobory 


117 


Souarela 


118 


Sources de Dinguiraye 


119 


Sources de Kindia 


120 


Soyah 


121 


Tafsirla 


122 


Tamba 


123 


Tangama 


124 


Teliko 


125 


Tialakoun 


126 


Tinka 


127 


Tolole 


128 


Tomine Koumba 


129 


Vonn 


130 


Wonkon 


131 


Yardo 



90 


1978 


4,000 


1942 


59,000 


1942 


67,400 


1952 


320 




19,800 


1952 


203 


1955 


1,900 


1943 


172 


1955 


700 


1945 


90 


1967 


350 




52,400 




700 


1942 


400 


1985 


13,600 


1942 


230 


1944 


330 


1944 


225 


1943 


2,000 


1952 


2,800 


1945 


990 


1950 


23,600 


1952 


950 


1945 


2,680 


1955 


303 


1943 


530 


1955 


4,840 


1942 


23,500 


1955 


4,750 


1950 


67,000 


1956 


18 


1954 


7,000 


1943 


5,600 


1936 


8,000 




1,200 


1936 


1,500 


1950 


700 


1955 


25,600 


1953 


6,075 


1945 


13,000 


1945 


250 




568 


1945 


600 


1986 


3,500 


1952 


2,300 


1951 


315 


1936 


1,500 


1943 


4,100 


1942 


14,000 


1942 


121 


1978 


1,175 


1956 


2,000 


1944 


71 


1951 


70 


1943 


8,400 


1945 


1,780 


1961 


15,000 


1945 


410 


1944 


462 


1978 


336 


1943 


540 


1944 


200 




36,000 


1954 


240 




282 


1967 


4,096 


1956 



324 



Subtotal 



131 site 



893,076 ha 



National Park 
132 Badiar 

Subtotal 



1 site 



38,200 1985 
38,200 ha 



Strict Nature Reserves 

133 Massif du Ziama 

134 Mount Nimba 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



112,300 1943 
13,000 1944 
125,300 ha 



Proposed (Faunal Reserves) 
Alkatraz 
Blanche 
Cabri 
Corail 
Tristao 
Subtotal 



5 sites 



1932 



9 

1 
4 

14 ha* 



Proposed (Strict Nature Reserve) 
Kamalaya (Kounounkan) 
Subtotal 



1 site 



5,032 
5,032 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



134 sites 
6 sites 



1,056,576 ha 
5,046 ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



325 



LIBERIA 

National Park 

1 Sapo 129,230 1983 

Subtotal 1 site 129,230 ha 

Proposed (National Forests) 

Belle 65,600 

Cestos-Sankwen 145,000 

Lofa-Mano 230,000 

Tienpo 12 , 800 

Subtotal 4 sites 453,400 ha 

Proposed (National Park) 

Cape Mount 55,400 

Subtotal 1 site 55,400 ha 

Proposed (Nature Conservation Units) 

Wologizi Area 20,234 

Wonegizi Area 26,130 

Subtotal 2 sites 46,364 ha 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 1 site 129,230 ha 

Proposed conservation areas 7 sites 555,164 ha 



326 



NIGERIA 



Game Reserves 

1 Alawa 

2 Bakono 

3 Baturiya Wetlands 

4 Dagida 

5 Dagona 

6 Falgore (Kogin Kano) 

7 Gilli-Gilli 

8 Ibi 

9 If on 

10 Kambari 

11 Kashimbila 

12 Kwale 

13 Kwiambana 

14 Lame/Burra 

15 Margadu-Kabak Wetlands 

16 Nguru/Adiani Wetlands 

17 Okomu 

18 Ologbo 

19 Opara 

20 Orle River 

21 Pai River 

22 Pandam 

23 Sambisa 

24 Udi/Nsukka 

25 Wase 

26 Wase Rock Bird 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

27 Chad Basin 

28 Cross River 

29 Gashaka/Gumti 

30 Kainji Lake 

31 Old Oyo 

32 Yankari 

Subtotal 

Strict Nature Reserves 

33 Akure 

34 Bam Ngelzarma 

35 Bonu 

36 Lekki 

37 Milliken Hill 

38 Omo 

39 Ribako 

40 Urhonigbe 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Game Reserves) 
Akpaka 
Anambra 
Ankwe River 
Damper Sanctuary 
Ebbe/Kampe 
Iri-Ada-Obi 
Kamuku 
Meko 

Num River 
Ohosu 
Okeleuse 
Opanda 
Stubbs Creek 
Subtotal 



26 sites 



6 sites 



8 sites 



29,620 


1971 


190,000 


1972 


29,700 


1976 


29,422 


1971 


70 




92,000 


1969 


36,300 


1916 


156,000 


1972 


28,230 


1990 


41,400 


1969 


139,600 


1977 


1,340 


1916 


261,400 


1971 


205,767 


1972 


10,000 




7,500 




11,200 


1985 


19,440 


1981 


110,000 


1973 


110,000 


1916 


248,600 


1972 


22,400 


1972 


68,600 


1978 


5,600 


1981 


186,500 


1972 


93 


1972 


2,040,782 ha 




45,696 


1991 


422,688 


1991 


636,300 


1991 


534,082 


1975 


251,230 


1991 


224,400 


1991 


2,114,396 ha 




32 




142 




145 




7,800 




49,200 


1912 


460 


1949 


170 




64 




58,013 ha 




19,400 




35,400 





13 sites 



11,730 

120,000 

96,610 
9,720 

47,100 

11,440 

10,520 

10,000 
371,920 ha* 



327 



Proposed (National Park) 
Baturiya Wetlands 
Subtotal 



1 site 



29,700 
29,700 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



40 sites 
14 sites 



4,213,191 ha 
401,620 ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



328 



SIERRA LEONE 



Game Reserve 

1 Tiwai Island 

Subtotal 

National Park 

2 Outamba-Kilimi 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Game Reserves) 
Bagru-Moteva Creeks 
Kagboro Creek (Yawri Bay) 
Kangari Hills 
Kpaka-Pujehun 

Sankan Biriwa (Tingi Hills) 
Sewa-Waanje 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Game Sanctuaries) 
Bo Plains 

Bumpe Mangrove Swamp 
Subtotal 

Proposed (National Parks) 
Kuru Hills 
Lake Mape/Mabesi 
Lake Sonfon 
Loma Mountains 
Western Area 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Strict Nature Reserves) 
Bonthe Mangrove Swamp 
Gola (West) Forests 
Gola North Extension 
Mamunta-Mayoso Swamp 
Mogbai (Gola North) 
Port Loko Plains 
Sulima Mangrove Swamp 
Wemago (Gola East) 
Yelibuya Island 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







1,200 


1987 


1 


site 


1,200 


ha 






80,813 


1986 


1 


site 


80,813 

5,000 
5,000 
8,573 
2,500 

11,885 
10,000 


ha 


6 


sites 


42,958 

2,590 
4,921 


ha 


2 


sites 


7,511 

6,993 

7,511 

5,180 

33,201 

17,688 


ha 


5 


sites 


70,573 
10,101 


ha 






6,200 






3,885 








2,072 








4,000 








2,590 








2,590 








3,500 








3,885 




9 


sites 


38,823 


ha 


2 


sites 


82,013 


ha 


22 


sites 


159,865 


ha 



329 



TCXK) 



Faunal Reserves 


1 


Abdoulaye 


2 


Akaba 


3 


Aledjo 


4 


Djamde 


5 


Galangashie 


6 


Haho-Yoto 


7 


Kpessi 


8 


Oti Mandouri 


9 


Togodo 




Subtotal 


National Parks 


10 


Fazao-Malfakassa 


11 


Fosse aux Lions 


12 


Reran 




Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







30,000 




1951 






25,626 










765 




1959 






1,650 




1954 






7,500 




1954 






18,000 




1955 






28,000 










147,840 










31,000 




1952 


9 


sites 


290,381 

192,000 

1,650 

163,640 


ha 


1951 
1954 
1950 


3 


sites 


357,290 


ha 




12 


sites 


647,671 


ha 







sites 




ha 





330 



Annex 8.2 Extent of notified forests by forest origin and forest 

function. Non-forest includes botli degraded forest and 
lands not forested at the time of their reservation. 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Benin 
Total area (sq.km): 
Land area (sq.km): 

Month/year of reference: 1 991 



Sub -region: West Africa 



112620 
110620 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
N on -forest 
Plantation 



1373707 



2567 



TOTAL 



2567 



1373707 



Notes: Data are taken from B.D.Otchoun, pers.comm. 1 991 . 

The figure for conservation forests represents 45 
classified forests (see Annex 8.1). Classified forests are 
listed as protected areas by the Department of Forests and 
Natural Resources, although according to legislation 
(Decret No. 89-385), classified forests may be exploited if 
permission is granted by the Minister responsible for 
Water, Forests and Hunting. 

The figure for protection forests represents 7 reforestation 
areas. 



331 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Cote D'ivoire 
Total area (sq.l<m): 322460 

Land area (sq.km): 31 8000 

Montli/year of reference: February 1 990 



Sub-region: West Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



2378670 



1222190 



TOTAL 



2378670 



1222190 



Notes: Data are taken from Bagno, 1 990. 

There are 191 classified forests, 128 of which occur in 
dense forest and serve primarily a production function, and 
63 (1 ,222,1 90ha) which are found in the savanna zone and 
serve principally a protection function. 

The total for production forests does not include the area 
for 25 classified forests which are to be declassified for 
agricultural purposes. 



332 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Ghana 

Total area (sq . I<m) : 238540 

Land area (sq.km): 230020 

Month/year of reference: August 1 990 



Sub-region: West Africa 



FOREST 
ORIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Consen/ation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1255989 



52828 



639623 



482517 



1471 



108049 



TOTAL 



1308817 



1122140 



109520 



Notes: Data are from the Forestry Commission, 1 990; Forestry 

Department, 1990 (above totals). 

Many of the producion forests have Protection Working 
Circles which generally consist of steep slopes and 
watersheds in which logging is prohibited and, therefore, 
serve primarily a protection function. The total area 
under Protection Working Circles is estimated to be 
430,000ha (Gartey, 1990). 

The figure for protection forests of natural origin 
comprises 209,623ha of forest reserve (Annex 8.1) and 
430,000ha protection working circles. 



333 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Guinea 

Total area (sq.l<m): 245860 

Land area (sq.l<m): 245860 

iVIontli/year of reference: Marcli 1 992 



Sub-region: West Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



893076 



1406 



163500 



TOTAL 



894482 



163500 



Notes: Data are taken from the Direction Nationale des Forets et 

Chasses(1992). 

The figure for conservation forests represents the national 
park and strict nature reserves. 

The figure 893,076 represents classified forests (see Annex 8.1). 

The figure 1 ,406 represents reforestation areas, which are 
assumed to be of plantation origin, and for protection 
purposes. 

Information concerning production forests is not available. 



334 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Liberia 

Total area (sq . km) : 111 370 

Land area (sq.km): 96320 

IVIonth/year of reference: May 1 992 



Sub- region: West Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1445327 



508800 



TOTAL 



1445327 



508800 



Notes: Data are taken from B.S.Gwyan (Forestry Development 

Authority); Anstey (1991). 

National forests (production) are administered by the 
Forestry Development Authority. National parks and other 
conservation areas are managed by the Wildlife and National 
Parks section within FDA and are therefore not included in 
this table. 



335 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Nigeria 

Total area (sq.l<m): 923770 

Land area (sq.km): 91 0770 



Montii/year of reference: June/December 1 990 



Sub -region: West Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 7649180 

Non- forest 

Plantation 194178 



2098795 



371920 



TOTAL 



7843358 



2098795 



371920 



Notes: Data are taken from the Forestry Research Institute, 1 990 

(production forest totals); Nigerian Conservaton 
Foundation, 1990; WCMC database (conservation forest 
totals). 

The figure 2,098,795 represents strict nature reserves 
and game reserves, which are managed and administered by 
each State Department of Forestry. National parks used to be 
administered by the Division of Wildlife and Conservation 
within the Federal Department of Forestry, but since 1 991 , 
have been controlled and managed by the corporate National 
Parks Governing Board, operating through individual 
National Parks Management Committees. The area of national 
parks is therefore excluded form the above table. 

Strict nature resen/es can occur within game reserves, 
hence the figure 2,098,795 may be an overestimate. 



336 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 



Sub-region: West Africa 



Name of country/state: Sierra Leone 
Total area (sq.km): 71740 
Land area (sq.km): 71620 



Month/year of reference: 1 990 


FOREST 
ORIGIN 


FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 


Natural 


285300 34000 


Non -forest 




Plantation 


11800 


TOTAL 


285300 34000 11800 


Notes: 


Data are from Davis (1987), Allan (1990) and Palmer (1992). 




National Parks and other conservation areas fall under the 
Wildlife Conservation Branch within the Forestry Division 
and are not included in the above table. 




The 1 1 ,800 ha of consen/ation forest are stands planted 
200m deep along road strips, for conservation purposes. 




337 



Annex 8.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Togo 
Total area (sq.km): 56790 
Land area (sq.km): 54390 

l\/lonth/year of reference: August 1 990 



Sub-region: West Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



104157 



29180 
38881 



TOTAL 



68061 



104157 



Notes: Data are from Frame, G.W. and Tanghanwaye, N.N. (1991). 

The Ministry of Environment and Tourism comprises six 
departments. These include the Department of National Parks, 
Fauna Reserves and Hunting (responsible for management of 
national parks and reserves, which are therefore not 
Included in this table), and the Department of Protection 
and Control of Exploitation of the Flora, which is 
responsible for conserving the natural vegetation in 
all the forest reserves, and for enforcing the forest code. 

Some forest reserves are managed by the Ministry of 
Rural Development, which exploits natural forests and tree 
plantations both within and outside forest reserves. 

Togo has 80 forest reserves. Approximately 28 of these, 

(covering 104,157ha) mainly fulfil a conservation 

function, and are listed here as conservation forests. A 

further 39 are listed here as production forests. These comprise 1 1 

reserves (covering 29,180ha), listed as being of non -forest 

origin, which have been cleared of natural vegetation, and 

28 (covering 38,881 ha) being plantations. Remaining 

forest reserves lie within the faunal reserves and national parks. 



338 



9 CENTRAL AFRICA 



9 CENTRAL AFRICA 

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, 
Sao Tome and Principe, Zai're 



9.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

Protection of nature in Central Africa has its origins in oral customary law, traditional rules and taboos 
concerning hunting. 

Nature conservation legislation within the subregion still reflects the countries' colonial histories. In the Central 
African Republic, Congo and Gabon (previously French colonies) and Zaire (previously a Belgian colony), 
policy and law were derived directly from France or Belgium (by Royal Decree of the Belgian monarch), and 
the long experience of temperate forestry in those countries. The situation in Cameroon, which was formed 
by the union of two parts formerly under British and French administrations, is more complex. Reserves in 
Equatorial Guinea, then a Spanish colony, were created by Ministerial Decree of the Spanish government. Sao 
Tome and Principe, a Portuguese colony was subject to Portuguese colonial law. 



9.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

Legal provisions for the establishment of protected areas have been passed in all countries within the subregion, 
other than Sao Tome and Principe, since independence. These are summarised in Table 9. 1 and reviewed 
below. 

Conservation areas in the subregion are designated either under the forest law, or under separate wildlife law. 
In both cases, designations are generally similar and follow those given in the African Convention of 1968. 
This provides definitions of strict nature reserve, national park and special reserve (which includes other areas 
such as game reserve, partial reserve, sanctuary and soil, water and forest reserve). 

9.2.1 Foresti-y Sector 

Policy In general, little information on forest policy is available. Sao Tome and Principe had no forest policy 
by 1985. In Cameroon, main objectives of the forest sector are defined under the Vie Plan de D6v61oppement 
for the period 1986-1991, but no policy has been formulated. 

Legislation Texts from the colonial period were based on experience from continental Europe, and reflect the 
principle, common at the time, that nature provides a readily exploitable resource. A decree, based on France's 
long experience of temperate forestry, established the forestry regime in French Equatorial Africa (which 
included Chad, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Gabon). The original French forestry legislation was 
based on the principle of Roman legislation. According to this, unoccupied land, where existence of written 
ownership documents could not be proved, belonged to the state. All forest lands were thus declared state 
property, although local populations exercised many rights of use. Contradiction between the oral customary 
law and these written regulations led to a general reluctance of local people to accept the delineation of reserved 
forests. 

Since independence, all francophone countries in the subregion have promulgated new forestry law, based on 
the earlier French legislation. The concept of state forests.comprising classified forests and protected forests, 
still exists. Classified forests are gazetted areas in which customary rights of use are generally permitted, but 
which are otherwise generally protected. Protected forests comprise that part of the state forest not subject to 
individual classification orders, which, therefore, do not appear in Table 9.1. Within protected forests, 
uncontrolled clearing and unauthorised logging are forbidden, as is the regulation of customary rights which the 
population could otherwise exercise without restraint. 



339 



In general, forest legislation within the subregion concerns only the large forest massifs. Clauses which concern 
forest outside these areas are few, and technically far behind those found in recent legislation for countries in 
neighbouring subregions. 

The situation in Cameroon is confiising. Areas of forest were originally designated as forest reserves. New 
forest legislation has subsequently been passed, which provides for many designations, but not for forest 
reserves. Existing forest reserves are, therefore, awaiting reclassification as production or protection forests, 
but meanwhile continue to be known as forest reserves. 

Conservation areas may be established under the forest legislation (e.g. Cameroon, the Central African 
Republic, Congo and Gabon). Alternatively, they may be established under separate wildlife legislation (Zaire). 
The Forest Codes of Cameroon and the Central African Republic name various designations of conservation 
area, but definitions of these categories are only given in the subsequent wildlife laws. 

Equatorial Guinea and Zaire only have fragmentary forest legislation. 

9.2.2 Wildlife Sector 

Policy Information on nature conservation policies is not available. 

L^islation Conservation areas legislation has been promulgated within Cameroon, Central African Republic, 
Equatorial Guinea and Zaire. 

Designations for conservation areas, whether defined under the forest code or separate wildlife legislation, are 
generally the same throughout the subregion, and follow the 1968 African Convention. Categories defined 
include national parks, strict nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, hunting reserves and sport hunting reserves. 
The highest degree of protection is afforded to strict nature reserves, where access is only permitted for 
management purposes and scientific research. National parks are open to tourism, but residence is not 
permitted. Sanctuaries are for the protection of named species. Reserves in which hunting is permitted include 
hunting reserves, where subsistence hunting is allowed, and sport hunting reserves, where licensed hunting for 
sport is permitted. 

Gabon is anomalous in that delinitions of conservation areas do not follow those given in the African 
Convention. 

Protected areas were established in Equatorial Guinea when the region was under colonial rule. Following 
independence these were all ignored. Eight protected areas have recently been established in the country, but 
information is not available concerning the legislation under which they have been gazetted. Legislation on the 
creation of protected areas in Sao Tome and Principe has not been passed, and needs to be established urgently. 

9.2.3 Additional Sectors 

Presidential reserves in the subregion are established by presidential decree. 



9.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 

Departments responsible for administration of protected areas are given in Table 9.1. Categories are listed 
according to the language used in the original legislation. A glossary of terms (French, Portuguese and French) 
is given in Part I. 

9.3.1 Forestry Sector 

Within the region, there is a proliferation of state and para-statal institutions involved in the forestry sector. 
Individual managed areas are frequently managed by numerous organisations. In the Congo, six different 
ministries are involved in forest management, and in Zaire, ten departments are involved. 

340 



In general this leads to confusion and inefficient overall management. 

9.3.2 Wildlife Sector 

Conservation areas have been managed traditionally under a single administrative organisation within the forest 
departments of respective countries within the subregion. This remains the case in the Central African 
RepubUc, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, where conservation areas are managed by departments within the 
ministry responsible for forests. In Cameroon the department responsible for wildlife is in a separate ministry 
to that responsible for forests. 

Management of conservation areas in the Congo and Zaire is complex, many organisations being involved, 
which, in the Congo fall within six different ministries. 

In Gabon, a para-military force of forestry and wildlife staff is directly responsible for managing reserves. 

9.3.3 Additional Sectors 

Officially decreed presidential reserves exist in both the Central African Republic and Gabon, under direct 
control of the countries' presidents. 

9.3.4 Non-Governmental Organisations 

No information is available on the direct involvement of non-governmental organisations in the management of 
protected areas within the subregion. 

9.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 

The protected areas system is mapped for each country within the subregion in Fig 9.1-7 (Part III). Details of 
individual conservation areas are given in Aimex 9. 1 which serves as a key to the maps. 

9.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 

Coverage Data for the region is generally so incomplete that general conclusions concerning the extent of 
managed areas within the forestry sector cannot reasonably be made. Available data is given in Table 9.2, and 
indicates that a minimum of 8 . 8 % of the total area of the subregion is managed by the forestry sector, although 
this is considered to be a gross underestimate. 

According to Table 9.2, managed areas within the forestry sector appear to be most extensive in Equatorial 
Guinea (11.3%). This figure represents eight recently established protected areas, which are presumed to be 
under the management of the forest sector. 

Apart from Equatorial Guinea, the country in the subregion with the greatest area (3 %) managed by the forest 
sector is Cameroon, virtually all of which comprises production forest. This is in contrast to the overall figures 
for the subregion which indicate that most of the land managed by the forest sector is allocated to protection 
or conservation purposes. 

The contribution of the forest sector to conservation is further underestimated in the tables, as no figures are 
available for the extent of protected forests, which are legislated for in all francophone countries within the 
subregion. 

Throughout the francophone countries, virtually all land outside gazetted areas is known as foret protegee, in 
which felling, amongst other things is prohibited, and which thus serves a conservation function. The 
contribution of the forestry sector as a whole to protection and conservation is, therefore, much higher than 
suggested by the statistics in Table 9.2. 



341 



9.4.2 Conservation Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 

Coverage There are some 209 legally designated conservation areas in the subregion covering a total of 27 
million ha or 6.7% of the subregion (Table 9.3). Approximately onehalf of these conservation areas are under 
total protection, covering 3.2% of the subregion (Table 9.3). The rest are partially protected. The forestry 
sector is directly responsible for only 75 conservation areas, covering a total area of 3 million ha or 0.2% of 
the region. Bearing in mind the paucity of information available, this is certainly an underestimate. 

The 10% target of total area under protection for conservation purposes has only been reached by the Central 
African Republic and Equatorial Guinea. Only 5.4% of Zaire is protected. This is an imftortant consideration, 
bearing in mind that this country alone accounts for 57 % of the subregion. Li contrast, Sao Tome and Principe 
have no protected areas, but as the total land area of the two islands which comprise the country only amount 
to less than 0.1% of the subregion, this is insignificant on a subregional level. 

Representativeness No protected areas yet exist in Sao Tome and Principe. As the country consists of two 
islands this has greater implications than if an equally small area on the mainland was totally unprotected. 
Although currently 9.5% of Cameroon lies within protected areas, these are not evenly distributed. National 
parks were originally set up in the north, where big game could be more easily viewed in the Sudanian savanna. 
This region is, therefore, well represented in contrast to forest areas in the south of the country, which are much 
less well represented. Similarly, in Central African Republic, most protected areas are located in the northern 
Sudanian savanna. However, attempts have been made recently to improve the representativeness of the system 
with the establishment in 1990 of Dzanga-Ndoki National Park and Dzanga-Sangha Special Reserve in the 
extreme south-west comer in a region of rain forest. In the Congo the situation is quite different. Samples of 
all vegetation types except swamp forest are included within protected areas, although the area gazetted is 
minimal (3.9% by 1982), and, as management is virtually non-existent, these are in effect only paper parks. 
Until recently. Equatorial Guinea had no protected areas, the well organised areas established during colonial 
days having collapsed. However, nine areas have recently been accorded formal protection, theoretically 
establishing an effective system. Again, information available suggests that these too exist only in name. 
Conservation areas in Gabon are located primarily on or near the coast, with little of the east of the country 
being represented. In Zaire, conservation areas are well distributed throughout the country. 

Ecofloristic zone analysis [pending data from FAO] 

Int^rity Data in Table 9.4b indicate that conservation areas under the wildlife sector tend to be large or very 
large throughout the subregion, particularly in Zaire, which has a mean size of totally protected area of over 
1 million ha. Mean size of totally protected areas is in all cases almost double that of partially protected areas. 
National parks form the bulk of the former category which, by definition, tend to be relatively large areas and 
provide a range of services. The two presidential reserves listed under Additional Sector (Table 9.4c) are 
similarly large. In contrast, reserves managed by the forestry sector are comparatively minute with a range of 
4 to 40,000ha, apart from in Zaire which once again provides conservation areas with the largest mean size, 
of 141,500ha in this instance. 

Effectiveness Apart from inadequate representation of the subregion's biological diversity within existing 
conservation area networks, conservation efforts are limited by weaknesses in policy, legislation, institutional 
support and management. Existing legislation frequently needs strengthening or updating (Table 9.6). 
Management of protected areas throughout the sub-region is inadequate or totally lacking. Management plans 
for conservation areas within the region generally do not appear to exist, and many protected areas are 
ineffective, existing only on paper. The general lack of commitment of resources for conservation areas is 
largely responsible for many of the deficiencies in their management. Enforcement is very often handicapped 
by the absence of clearly-demarcated boundaries that are easily recognisable on the ground. Encroachment by 
people is ubiquitous, few conservation areas being free of this problem. Poaching is a continual problem 
throughout the region. 

Even in Gabon, management is generally low despite the country's relative affluence, an exception being the 
relatively well protected Wonga-Wongu6 Presidential Reserve. Invasion of protected areas by local populations. 



342 



which is a considerable problem elsewhere in Africa, is generally not a problem within this region, due to the 
comparatively low population pressure. 

9.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 

Preliminary data in Table 9.2 suggest that the contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation is low 
(8%) in terms of the total area of the subregion under protection and conservation forest. The great majority 
(86%) of the conservation area network falls within the domain of the wildlife sector (Table 9.3). 

The figures in Table 9.2 should be considered to be an absolute minimum. Data for the subregion was sparse, 
and the contribution of the forest sector to conservation is further underestimated, as no figures are available 
of the extent of protected forests. These are legislated for in all francophone countries within the subregion, 
and comprise virtually all land outside gazetted areas. Numerous activities, including felling, are prohibited, 
hence these forests serve a conservation function. 



9.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 

9.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 

The conservation area networks in all the countries within the region need to be expanded. In Cameroon, 
legislation states that 20% of the country should be protected, but present coverage is much less than this. 
Gabon is one of the few countries in the world that still offers exceptional potential for conservation. In 
general, the major ecosystems remain intact, and human activities are having less of an influence on the forest 
as people become more sedentary. 

Proposals exist for the establishment of completely protected ecological zones on Sao Tome and Principe, at 
high altitudes, and on very steep slopes. Official proposals to expand the conservation area network throughout 
the region total some 1.7 million ha or 0.4 % of the total area of the subregion (Table 9.3). 

9.5.2 Other National Initiatives 
Strengthening networks 

No information 

Overcoming Economic Constraints Funding is a major factor which limits the effective management of 
conservation areas throughout the region, although this is much less of a problem in Gabon, which has a GNP 
at least double that of other countries within the sub-region. 

Improving Management Management needs to be implemented, or improved throughout the sub-region. 

9.5.3 International Initiatives 

Conventions and Programmes All the countries within the sub-region are the subject of a regional programme 
"Conservation and Rational Utilisation of Forest Ecosystems in Central Africa", fmanced by the European 
Development Fund of the EC (IUCN,1989). 

Sao Tome and Principe, and Equatorial Guinea are not party to any of the international conventions listed in 
Table 9.5, to which other countries in the subregion belong. These comprise the 1968 (Algiers) African 
Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the Unesco Man and the Biosphere 
Programme, under which biosphere reserves are established , and the Convention Concerning the World 
Cultural and Natural Heritage (in which all other countries in the subregion participate). Gabon is the only 
country within the subregion party to the Ramsar Convention, under which three wetlands have been designated, 
all of which encompass areas of forest. 



343 



Cooperative agreements Zaire has transfrontier parks with Uganda and Rwanda, in neighbouring subregions, 
but there does not appear to be any cooperation in management. 



9.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 

Priorities for conservation action in the subregion, summarised in Table 9.6, were reviewed in the now dated 
lUCN Systems review of rhe Afrotropical Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986) and the subsequent action 
plan (lUCN, 1987). Priorities have more recently been reviewed by lUCN (1989), and lUCN (1992) in 
preparation for the IV World Parks Congress. These are generalised, recognising that translation of priorities 
into action will vary according to national conservation objectives, history and political will. They provide a 
foundation to the more specific priorities identified in this report and are summarised in Table 9.6. 

Recommendations listed in lUCN (1989) include limiting the great diversity of institutions responsible for forest 
management, establishing coordination between NGOs and the forest services, and the recruitment of women, 
who usually play an important role in agriculture and collection of forest products, into the forest service. 

The Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Action on UNCED Negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution to the 
African Position (Anon., 1991), concerning enviroimiental degradation within the Sahel, was drawn up for 
UNCED 1992, following two consultative meetings of 22 Sudano-Sahelian countries, which included Cameroon. 
The report highlights the link between poverty and mismanagement of natural resources, particularly exploitation 
of marginal lands and deforestation. Recommendations include action to be taken at both the international and 
African level. 

In conclusion, although mostly aware of the need for conservation area networks, well-funded institutions and 
up-to-date policy and legislation, governments in the subregion have generally not been able to ensure these are 
established, which has hampered progress within the subregion. 



344 



REFERENCES 

Anon. (1991). Sudano-Sahelian PLATFORM for Action on UNCED Negotiations and Beyond: A Contribution 

to the African Position. Prepared by the 22 Sudano-Sahelian Countries. CILSS, UNSO, IGADD. 22 pp. 
rUCN (1987). Action strategy for protected areas in the Afrotropical Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 56 pp. 
lUCN (1989). La Conservation des Ecosystfemes forestiers d'Afrique centrale. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 124 pp. 
lUCN (1992). Parks for Life: proceedings of the IV World Parks Congress on National Parks and Protected 

Areas. 250 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Afrotropical Realm. 

lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 259 pp. 
Stuart, S.N. and Adams, R.J. (1990). Biodiversity in Sub-saharan ^rica and its islands: consrvation, 

management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 242 pp. 



345 



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1 



Table 9.2 Extent of notified natural forests, classified by forest function. Units are in sq. km, 

followed by % total area. Full data, with sources, are given in Annex 9.2. 



Country Total FOREST FUNCTION 

SUBREGION Area Production Protection Conservation Total 



Cameroon 475,440 14,037 (2.9) 477 (0.1) <1(<0.1) 14,514 (3.0) 

Central African 

6,335 (1.0) 15,835 (2.5) 

3,170 (0.9) 

316,700(11.3) 316,700 (11.3) 
7 



Republic 


622,980 


9,500 


(1.5) 





Congo 


342,000 


7 




3,170 (0.9) 


Equatorial 
Guinea 


28,050 


? 




? 


Gabon 


267,670 


? 




? 


Sao Tome 










& Principe 


960 


? 




? 


Zaire 


2,345,100 


6,185 


(0.3) 






5,172 (0.2) 11,357 (0.5) 



CENTRAL AFRICA 

4,082,200 29,722 (0.7) 3,647(<0.1) 328,207 (8.0) 361,576 (8.8) 



? = No information 



350 



Table 9.3 Extent of notified and proposed conservation areas, classified by sector and national 

designation. Management categories are assigned to designations based on national legislation 
(P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total protection with no 
extractive uses). Totals for proposed sites may be inflated because they may include areas 
of properties already protected but proposed for upgrading to higher conservation status. 
Details of individual properties are given in Annex 9.2. N is the total number of conservation 
areas. 



COUNTRY 

Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



CAMEROON (475,440 sq. km) 



Forest Sector 

Protection Forest 

Recreation Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
Hunting Reserve 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (622,980 sq. km) 



p 


9 


47,676 


11 


154,985 


P 


1 


25 


3 


124 




10 


47,701 
( 0.1) 


14 


155,109 
( 0.3) 


p 


9 


1,018,995 * 


4 


85,000 * 


p 


27 


1,721,190 








T 


7 


1,031,800 


1 


353,180 




43 


3,771,985 * 
( 7.9) 


5 


438,180 * 
( 0.9) 




53 


3,819,686 * 
( 8.0) 


19 


593,289 * 
( 1-2) 



Forest Sector 

Classified Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area)^ 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
National Park 
Sanctuary 
Special Reserve 
Strict Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 



P 
T 

P 
P 
T 



Additional Sector, or sector unknown 
Private Reserve P 

Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



46 
46 



7 
4 


1 

1 

13 



60 



633,472 
633,472 
( 1.0) 



2,668,000 

3,102,000 



335,900 

86,000 

6,191,900 

( 9-9) 



250,000 
250,000 

( 0.4) 

7,075,372 

( 11-3) 








1 

1 
1 




3 






( 0.0) 



320,000 

435,900 

265,000 





1,020,900 

( 1.6) 






( 0.0) 

1,020,900 

( 1.6) 



351 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National ciesignation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notif ieci 



Area (ha) 



Proposeci 



Area (ha) 



CONGO (342,000 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Protection Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Faunal Reserve 
Hunting Reserve 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

EQUATORIAL GUINEA (28,050 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Protected Area 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

GABON (267,670 sq. km) 



P 


? 




317,000 












317,000 
( 0.9) 





P 


6 




895,794 





p 


3 




155,000 





T 


1 




126,600 







10 


1 


,177,394 

( 3.5) 







10 


1 


,494,394 

( 4.4) 











316,700 
316,700 
( 11.3) 







( 0.0) 

316,700 
( 11-3) 













0. 


0) 






















0. 


0) 







0. 


0) 





0. 


.0) 





0. 


* 
* 
0) 



0. 


* 
0) 



Forest Sector 

Faunal Reserve 

Hunting Area 

Strict Nature Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Additional Sector, or sector unknown 
Presidential Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE (960 sq. km) 



p 
p 

T 


4 
6 

1 
11 


650,000 

695,000 

15,000 

1,360,000 

( 5.1) 








( 






0.0) 


rn 

p 


1 
1 


380,000 
380,000 
( 1-4) 






( 




0.0) 




12 


1,740,000 

( 6.5) 





( 



0.0) 



Wildlife Sector 
Ecological Zone 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 











0.0) 


0.0) 



29,000 
29,000 
( 30.2) 

29,000 
( 30.2) 



352 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



ZAIRE (2,345,100 sq. Ion) 

Forest Sector 

Forest Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Hunting Reserve 
National Park 
Strict Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



Area (ha) 



? 517,169 * 
517,169 * 
( 0.2) 



P 55 3,838,645 * 
T 7 8,544,000 
T 4 * 

66 12,382,645 * 
( 5.2) 

66 12,899,814 * 
( 5.4) 










( 0.0) 



2 

2 



76,850 * 


76,850 * 
( 0.0) 


2 


76,850 * 
( 0.0) 



CENTRAL AFRICA (4,082,200 sq. km) - 

Forestry Sector 

(% total area) 
Wildlife Sector 

(% total area) 
Additional Sector or sector unknown 

(% total area) 



summary 


by sector 






75 


3,192,042 * 


14 


155,109 




( 0.8) 




( 0.0) 


132 


23,523,924 * 


13 


1,564,930 * 




( 5.8) 




( 0.4) 


2 


630,000 










( 0.2) 




( 0.0) 



CENTRAL AFRICA (4,082,200 sq. km) - summary by management category 

Total protection 

(% total area) 
Partial protection 

(% total area) 
Degree of protection unknown 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



25 


12,905,400 * 


5 


865,930 * 




( 3.2) 




( 0.2) 


184 


14,440,566 * 


22 


854,109 * 




( 3.5) 




( 0.2) 
















( 0.0) 




( 0.0) 


209 


27,345,966 * 


27 


1,720,039 * 




( 6.7) 




( 0.4) 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data for either number of sites or 
area covered. 



353 



Table 9.4(a) Frequency distributions of conservation area sizes, with means, classified by management 
category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total protection 
with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 


Number 


in 


each 


size 


class (ha) 








size 














a) Forestry Sector 




(ha) 


<1000 


1001 


- 


10001- 














10 


,000 


100 


,000 >100, 


000 


CAMERCWN 




















Notified sites 


P 


10 


4,770 


6 




3 




1 







Total 


10 


4,770 


6 




3 




1 





Proposed sites 


P 


14 


11,079 


7 




3 




4 







Total 


14 


11,079 


7 




3 




4 





CENTRAL AFRICAN 


REPUBLIC 


















Notified sites 


P 


46 


13,771 


19 




17 




7 


3 




Total 


46 


13,771 


19 




17 




7 


3 


EQUATORIAL GUINEA 


















Notified sites 


P 


8 


39,587 







1 




7 







Total 


8 


39,587 







1 




7 





GABON 




















Notified sites 


T 


1 


15,000 












1 







P 


10 


134,500 












6 


4 




Total 


11 


123,636 












7 


4 


ZAIRE 




















Notified sites 


P 


2 


141,500 












1 


1 




Total 


2 


141,500 












1 


1 


CENTRAL AFRICA 




















Notified sites 


T 


1 


15,000 












1 







P 


76 


34,550 


25 




21 




22 


8 




Total 


77 


34,297 


25 




21 




23 


8 


Proposed sites 


P 


14 


11,079 


7 




3 




4 







Total 


14 


11,079 


7 




3 




4 






Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



354 



Table 9.4(b) Frequency distributions of conservation area sizes, with means, classified by management 
category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total protection 
with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 


Number 


in each 


size class 


1 (ha) 


b) Wilcilife Sector 


(ha) 


<1000 


1001- 
10,000 


10001- 
100,000 


>100,000 


CAMEROON 
















Notified sites 
ProposecJ sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


7 
35 
42 
1 
2 
3 


147,400 
78,291 
89,809 

353,180 
42,500 

146,060 




1 
1 





2 

3 
5 






25 
25 

2 
2 


5 

6 

11 

1 


1 


CENTRAL AFRICAN 


REPUBLIC 














Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


5 
8 
13 
1 
2 
3 


637,600 
375,487 
476,300 
435,900 
292,500 
340,300 


















1 

1 





4 

8 

12 

1 
2 
3 


CONGO 
















Notified sites 


T 
P 

Total 


1 

9 

10 


126,600 
116,754 
117,739 









1 
1 



6 
6 


1 
2 
3 


ZAIRE 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 
Total 


7 
14 
21 

1 
1 


1,220,571 

274,188 

589,649 

76,850 

76,850 




2 
2 






1 
1 






4 
4 

1 
1 


7 
7 
14 




CENTRAL AFRICA 
















Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


20 
66 
86 


644,520 
161,114 
273,534 




3 
3 


2 
5 

7 


1 
35 
36 


17 
23 
40 


Proposed sites 


T 

P 

Total 


3 
4 

7 


288,643 
167,500 
219,418 












1 
2 

3 


2 
2 
4 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



355 



Table 9,4(c) Frequency distributions of conservation area sizes, with means, classified by management 
category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total protection 
with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 
size 
(ha) 


Number 


in 1 


Bach 


size c 


lass (ha) 


c) Additional 




<1000 


1001' 


- 


10001 


_ 


Sector (s) 










10 


,000 


100, 


000 >100,000 


CENTRAL AFRICAN 


REPUBLIC 
















Notified sites 


P 


1 


250,000 












1 




Total 


1 


250,000 












1 


GABON 


















Notified sites 


P 


1 


380,000 












1 




Total 


1 


380,000 












1 


CENTRAL AFRICA 


















Notified sites 


P 


2 


315,000 












2 




Total 


2 


315,000 












2 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 
to N in Table 3, because the areas of some individual sites may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



356 



Table 9.5 State parties to international (and regional) conventions or programmes concerning the 
conservation of natural areas, together with the number of properties (natural of mixed 
natural /cultural in the case of the World Heritage Convention) recognised under respective 
conventions in brackets. 





World Heritage 
Convention 


Biosphere 
Reserves' 


Ramsar 
Convention 


African 
Convention 


Cameroon 


1982 (1) 


1979 (3) 


- 


R 


Central African 
Republic 


1980 (1) 


1977 (2) 


- 


R 


Congo 


1987 (0) 


1977 (2) 


- 


R 


Equatorial Guinea 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gabon 


1986 (0) 


1983 (1) 


1986 (3) 


S 


Sao Tome and 
Principe 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Zaire 


1974 (4) 


1976 (3) 


- 


R 



'Unesco MAB Project 8 
R = ratified 
S = signatory 



357 



B 
O 
u 



§> 



CO 

■35 



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Annex 9.1 List of conservation areas. Locations of most notified conservation areas are shown in tlie 
accompanying maps in Part HI 

CAMEROON 



Faunal Reserves 

1 Campo 

2 Dja 

3 Douala-Edea 

4 Kimbi 

5 Lac Ossa 

6 Mbi Crater 

7 Nanga-Eboke 

8 Sanaga 

9 Santchou 

Subtotal 

Hunting Reserves 

10 Bandjoukri 

11 Bel Eland 

12 Boune Dje 

13 Cobas 

14 Densa 

15 Djibao 

16 Dobinga 

17 Elephants 

18 Faro Coron 

19 Faro Ouest 

20 Grand Capitaine 

21 Hippopotame 

22 Kourouk 

23 Landou 

24 Logone Birni 

25 Mayo Duele 

26 Mayo Oldiri 

27 Mayo Oldiri Nord 

28 Mayo Oldiri Sud 

29 Mayo Sala 

30 Ndock 

31 Rhinoceros 

32 Sadje 

33 Tatou 

34 Tcheboa 

35 Vogzom 

36 Waimba 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

37 Benoue 

38 Bouba Ndjidah 

39 Faro 

40 Kalamaloue 

41 Korup 

42 Mozogo-Gokoro 

43 Waza 

Subtotal 

Protection Forests 

44 Bakwery 

45 Barombi-Mbolake 

46 Mbamidjin 

47 Mont Koupe 

48 Mont-Bamboutos 

49 Monts Ekasekas 

50 Mouma 

51 Nkilzock 



9 sites 



27 sites 



7 sites 



300,000 


1932 


526,000 


1950 


160,000 


1932 


5,625 


1964 


4,000 


1968 


370 


1964 


16,000 




7,000 


1933 


1,018,995 


ha* 


58,780 




26,000 




97,040 




50,000 




70,480 




64,600 




44,600 




17,000 




56,860 




125,950 




29,360 




46,950 




95,000 




38,370 




80,000 




64,600 




46,940 




60,000 




38,370 




38,000 




181,120 




72,510 




26,660 




20,000 




160,800 




85,000 




26,200 




1,721,190 


ha 


180,000 


1968 


220,000 


1968 


330,000 


1980 


4,500 


1972 


125,900 


1986 


1,400 


1968 


170,000 


1968 


1,031,800 


ha 


9,324 




885 




145 




300 




222 


1948 


250 




10,000 


1936 


3,000 


1936 



359 



52 Obala 

Subtotal 

Recreation Forest 

53 Bois des Singes 

Subtotal 

Proposeci (Faunal Reserves) 
Baf ia 

Boumba bee 
Lac Lobeke 
Nki 

Subtotal 

Proposeci (National Park) 
Mbam et Djerem 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Protection Forests) 
Boumba Belo 
Ejagham 
Kakaya (Kiki) 
Kouloumbou 
Koutaba 
Meri 
Mogode 
Mpadama 
Nyassogolo 
Yamben 
Zebe 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Recreation Forests) 
Edea 
Poll 

Sokilimbanga 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







23,550 




9 


sites 


47,676 
25 


ha 


1 


site 


25 
42,000 


ha 






43,000 


1974 


4 


sites 


85,000 


ha* 






353,180 


1968 


1 


site 


353,180 

54,540 

5,300 

78 

31,700 

332 

22,490 

285 

2,080 

6,400 

31,400 

380 


ha 


11 


sites 


154,985 

20 
20 
84 


ha 


3 


sites 


124 


ha 


53 


sites 


3,819,686 


ha* 


19 


sites 


593,289 


ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



360 



CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 



Classified Forests 


1 


Badada Kere 


2 


Bako Malikpa 


3 


Bandengue 


4 


Banzoum 


5 


Batangafo 


6 


Batouri Kadei 


7 


Batouri Sadowa 


8 


Bengue 


9 


Birini 


10 


Bolee 


11 


Botambi 


12 


Boungou 


13 


Calvaire 


14 


Collines de Bangui 


15 


Cote des Singes 


16 


Disso Donago 


17 


Herman 


18 


Landjia 


19 


Lole 


20 


Lotomo 


21 


Loumi 


22 


Mobaye 


23 


Mokinda 


24 


N'dres 


25 


Nan Barya Ngoudou 


26 


Nayomo Guimi 


27 


Ngotto 


28 


Ngoulo 


29 


Nidou 


30 


Ohou 


31 


Ouabere 


32 


Ouele Ouele 


33 


Pami 


34 


Pamia 


35 


Pande Zamaga 


36 


Paoua 


37 


Paya 


38 


Pepoulou 


39 


Poto Poto 


40 


Pradama 


41 


Sabo 


42 


Seriki 


43 


Tomi 


44 


Yakamele 


45 


Yangana 


46 


Zizi 




Subtotal 


Faunal Reserves 


47 


Aouk-Aoukale 


48 


Gribingui-Bamingui 


49 


Koukourou-Bamingui 


50 


Nana-Barya 


51 


Ouand j ia-Vakaga 


52 


Yata-Ngaya 


53 


Zemongo 




Subtotal 



46 sites 



7 sites 



National Parks 

54 Andre Felix 

55 Bamingui-Bangoran 

56 Dzanga-Ndoki 

57 Manovo-Gounda-Saint Floris 

Subtotal 



200 


1952 


200 


1952 


195 




5,600 


1950 


17,900 


1955 


110,000 


1953 


23,500 


1952 


80 


1954 


120,000 


1951 


90 




11,700 


1950 


16,000 


1952 


112 


1952 


195 


1952 


6,500 


1952 


7,500 


1952 


36 


1956 


270 


1948 


1,900 


1951 


5,500 


1951 


6,000 


1950 


2,180 


1951 


415 




30 


1948 


400 




150 




62,500 


1951 


150 


1950 


18 




120,000 


1951 


330 


1950 


2,200 


1952 


5,000 


1951 


9,000 


1952 


40,000 


1953 


20 




31 


1956 


1,500 


1950 


3,500 


1951 


20 




26,000 


1953 


5,700 


1952 


1,800 


1952 


3,000 


1951 


6,050 


1952 


10,000 


1951 


633,472 


ha 


330,000 


1939 


438,000 


1940 


110,000 


1940 


230,000 


1960 


130,000 


1925 


420,000 


1960 


1,010,000 


1925 


2,668,000 


ha 


170,000 


1960 


1,070,000 


1933 


122,000 


1990 


1,740,000 


1933 



4 sites 



3,102,000 ha 



361 



Private Reserve 
58 Avakaba Presidential Park 
Subtotal 



1 site 



250,000 1980 
250,000 ha 



Special Reserve 
59 Dzanga-Sangha 
Subtotal 



1 site 



335,900 1990 
335,900 ha 



Strict Nature Reserve 
60 Vassako-Bolo 
Subtotal 



1 site 



86,000 1960 
86,000 ha 



Proposed (Faunal Reserve) 
Bahr Oulou 
Subtotal 



1 site 



320,000 
320,000 ha 



Proposed (National Park) 
Sangha Economigue 
Subtotal 



1 site 



435,900 
435,900 ha 



Proposed (Sanctuary) 
Bongo 

Subtotal 



1 site 



265,000 
265,000 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



60 sites 
3 sites 



7,075,372 ha 
1,020,900 ha 



362 



CONGO 


Faunal Reserves 


1 


Conkouati 


2 


Lefini 


3 


Lekol i-Pandaka 


4 


Mont Fouari 


5 


Nyanga Nord 


6 


Tsoulou 




Subtotal 



Hunting Reserves 

7 M'boko 

8 Mont Mavoumbou 

9 Nyanga Sud 

Subtotal 



6 sites 



3 sites 



144,294 




1980 


630,000 




1951 


68,200 




1955 


15,600 




1958 


7,700 




1958 


30,000 




1963 


895,794 


ha 




90,000 




1955 


42,000 




1955 


23,000 




1958 


155,000 


ha 





National Park 
10 Odzala 

Subtotal 



1 site 



126,600 1940 
126,600 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



10 sites 
sites 



1,177,394 ha 
ha 



363 



EQUATORIAL GUINEA 



Protected Areas 

1 Altos de Nsok 

2 Estuario de rio Muni 

3 Estuario de rio Ntem (Campo) 

4 Is la de Annobon 

5 Macizo de Monte Alen 

6 Macizo de los Montes Mitra 

7 Pico Basile o Sta. Isabel 

8 Sur de la Isla de Bioco 

Subtotal 



8 sites 



40,000 


1990 


70,000 


1990 


20,000 


1990 


1,700 


1990 


80,000 


1990 


30,000 


1990 


15,000 


1990 


60,000 


1990 


316,700 ha 



Proposed (National Park) 
Monte del Frio 
Subtotal 



1 site 



ha* 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



8 sites 
1 site 



316,700 ha 
ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



364 



GABON 



Faunal Reserves 

1 Lope 

2 Moukalaba-Dougoua 

3 Ouanga Plain 

4 Petit Loango 

Subtotal 

Hunting Areas 

5 Grand Bam-Bam 

6 Iguela 

7 Moukalaba 

8 Ngove-Ndogo 

9 Sette-Cama 

10 Wonga Wongue 

Subtotal 

Presidential Reserve 

11 Wonga-Wongue 

Subtotal 



4 sites 



6 sites 



1 site 



500,000 




1962 


80,000 




1962 


20,000 




1966 


50,000 




1966 


650,000 


ha 




20,000 




1971 


180,000 




1962 


20,000 




1962 


250,000 




1962 


200,000 




1962 


25,000 




1962 


695,000 


ha 




380,000 




1971 


380,000 


ha 





Strict Nature Reserve 
12 Ipassa-Makokou 
Subtotal 



1 site 



15,000 1970 
15,000 ha 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



12 sites 
sites 



1,740,000 ha 
ha 



Sites 5 and 10 lie within Site 11. They are not mapped as information concerning 
their exact location was not available. 



365 



ZAIRE 



Forest Reserves 

1 Luki 

2 Yangambi 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



33,000 
250,000 
283,000 ha 



1979 



Hunting Reserves 

3 Alundas-Tutshokwea 

4 Azande 

5 Basse Kando 

6 Beni (Oicha) 

7 Bili-Uere 

8 Bombo-Lumene 

9 Botende 

10 Bukama 

11 Bushimaie 

12 Epi 

13 Epulu 

14 Fizi 

15 Gangala-na Bodio 

16 Gungu 

17 Hippo/Kolwezi 

18 lies aux singes 

19 lies de Kifuabire 

20 Kalemie 

21 Kalule 

22 Kibali-Ituri 

23 Kiziba-Baluba 

24 Kolwezi 

25 Lac Kwada 

26 Lac Mokoto 

27 Libenge 

28 Loma 

29 Lualaba 

30 Luama 

31 Luama/Shaba 

32 Lubudi-Scunppa 

33 Lueba-Izeba 

34 Lwadekere 

35 Maika-Penge 

36 Mangai 

37 Mitwaba 

38 Mole 

39 Hondo Missa 

40 Mont Hoyo 

41 Mufufya 

42 Mulumbu 

43 Mwanza 

44 Mwekaji 

45 Mwene 

46 Mwene Musona 

47 Rubi Tele 

48 Rubitele 

49 Rutshuru 

50 Sakanya 

51 Sandua 

52 Sefu-Kiongo 

53 Semliki-Kasenyi 

54 Sud-Ouest de Lubero 

55 Swa-Kibula 

56 Tshikamba 

57 Watalinga 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

58 Garamba 



600,000 

240,000 

982 

60,000 



380,000 



63 

340,000 
9,200 



900,000 
36,000 

32,400 
1,000,000 



100,000 



140,000 



55 sites 



3,838,645 ha* 



492,000 1938 



366 



59 Kahuzi-Biega 

60 Kundelungu 

61 Maiko 

62 Salonga 

63 Upemba 

64 Virunga 

Subtotal 



7 sites 



600,000 


1975 


760,000 


1970 


1,083,000 


1970 


3,656,000 


1970 


1,173,000 


1939 


780,000 


1925 


8,544,000 ha 





Nature Reserves 

65 Bomu 

66 Eaux Oelcommune 

67 Lac Fwa 

68 Ubundu 

Subtotal 



4 sites 



ha* 



Proposed (National Parks) 
Okapi 

Pare National Marine 
Subtotal 

Proposed (Reserve) 
Lomako 

Marungu mountains 
Uvira 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



3 sites 



76,850 
76,850 ha* 



ha* 



Totals 



Notified conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



68 sites 
5 sites 



12,665,645 ha* 
76,850 ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



367 



Annex 9.2 Extent of notified forests by forest origin and forest 

function. Non-forest includes both degraded forest and 
lands not forested at the time of their reservation. 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Cameroon 
Total area (sq.km): 475440 

Land area (sq.km): 465400 

Month/year of reference: March 1 992 



Sub-region: Central Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non- forest 
Plantation 



1403702 



48903 



829345 



4009 



47676 



159585 



25 



124 



TOTAL 



1452605 



833354 



47676 



159585 



25 



124 



Notes: Data are from B.Djingoer, pers.comm. 1 992 Forestry 

Department, Ministry of the Environment and Forests. 

Reforestation areas are listed as production forests of 
plantation origin. The figures for conservation forests 
represent 4 recreation forests. 



369 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 



Sub-region: Central Africa 



Name of country/state: Central African Republic 
Total area (sq.km): 622980 

Land area (sq.km): 622980 

Month/year of reference: May 1 990 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



950000 



633472 



TOTAL 
Notes: 



950000 



633472 



Data are from Ministere des eaux, forets, chasses, peches 
ettourisme, 1990. 

The figure 633,472 represents 46 classified forests 
(see Annex 9.1). 



370 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub-region: Central Africa 

^Name of country/state: Congo 

Total area (sq.l<m): 342000 

I Land area (sq. km): 341500 

I 

Month/year of reference: 1 981 

I 

I 

FOREST FUNCTION 

/FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

, (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 317000 

Non -forest 

Plantation 

TOTAL 



Note: FAO (1 981 ) gave an area of 31 7,000ha for the classified 

forests in the last assessment. New legislation has since 
been passed, and the term protection forest is now used. 



371 



n 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub -region: Central Africa 

Name of country/state: Equatorial Guinea 
Total area (sq.km): 28050 

Land area (sq.km): 28050 

Month/year of reference: 1 992 

FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 316700 

Non -forest 

Plantation 

TOTAL 316700 



Notes: Data are from Castroviejo (1 992) . 

The figure for conservation forests 31 6,700ha represents 
eight protected areas, recently established, and presumed 
to be managed by the authorities responsible for forests. 



372 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa Sub- region: Central Africa 

Name of country/state: Gabon 

Total area (sq.km): 267670 

Land area (sq.km): 257670 

Month/year of reference: 

FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests Conservation forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non- forest 
Plantation 

TOTAL ( 

Notes: No information available. 



373 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 



Sub-region: Central Africa 



Name of country/state: Sao Tome/Principe 
Total area (sq.km): 960 

Land area (sq.km): 960 

Month/year of reference: 1 989. 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non- forest 
Plantation 



45000 



29000 



TOTAL 



45000 



29000 



Notes: Data are taken from Jones et al (1 989). 

The figure for proposed protection forests represents two 
ecological zones to be established at higher altitudes and 
on steep slopes. 



374 



Annex 9.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Zaire 
Total area (sq.km): 
Land area (sq.km): 



Sub-region: Central Africa 



234510 
226729 



Month/year of reference: October 1 988. 



FOREST 
ORIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



618545 



517169 



TOTAL 



618545 



517169 



Notes: Data are taken from D.Katond, pers.comm. 1 990 and lUCN (1 990). 

Management of forests in Zaire is complex, with numerous 
organisations being involved. 

The figure 61 8,545 represents 200 production forests. 
The figure 51 7, 1 69 represents 1 1 7 forest reserves, under 
the management of the Direction de la Gestion des 
Ressources Naturelles Renouvelables. 



375 



10 TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA 



10 TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA (including Madagascar) 

Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Madagascar, Malawi, 
Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe 



10.1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 

Protection of nature, in the form of traditional creeds and superstitions, is an old tradition throughout the 
subregion, one notable example being the protection of mountain forests and peaks in Madagascar. The "305 
Articles Code" of the Ancient Malagasy Kingdom also provided protection for forests on the island and, under 
this code, those who were convicted of deforestation were condemned to be chained. During the 19th century, 
chiefs in Zambia had traditional hunting grounds where a measure of protection was provided. 

Conservation in the subregion, however, stems mainly from the creation of extensive networks in both the 
forestry and wildlife sectors, with forest reserves first being created around the turn of the century in Malawi, 
in the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s in most other countries, and somewhat later (1970s) in Botswana. To date, no 
forest reserves have been established in Namibia. Significant additions to the forest reserve networks of most 
countries has occurred in the post-independence period. 

The establishment of conservation areas in the wildlife sector follows a similar pattern, with the first game 
reserve being created in 1897 in Malawi, followed by those created in the early 1900s in Namibia and Tanzania, 
in the 1920s and 1930s in Angola, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Madagascar, and in the 1950s and 1960s 
in Mozambique and Botswana, respectively. Significant additions to these wildlife sector networks occurred 
in the majority of countries from the 1950s onwards. In most countries, national parks were established 
somewhat later than game reserves, and Burundi represents one of very few African countries where no national 
park was established during the colonial period. The majority of conservation areas in the wildhfe sector of 
Malawi were created from previously established forest reserves. 

National monuments, which serve primarily to protect natural features, were first created in Zambia in the 
1940s, Victoria Falls being a prominent example. National monuments, and legislation allowing for their 
creation, were established in the 1960s for both Malawi and Namibia. 

Nature conservation is in various stages of development throughout the subregion. Legislation allowing for the 
creation of forest reserves exists in all countries, with the possible exception of Namibia. Further, all countries 
have legislation providing for the creation of conservation areas in the wildlife sector, most of which conform 
to international standards, the exception being Angola where conservation areas are established under individual 
laws (lUCN, 1987a). Apart from Madagascar, where the situation is under review, each country has distinct 
agencies or departments which are responsible for conservation areas in the forestry and wildlife sectors, 
respectively. 



10.2 NATURE CONSERVATION POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

Legislation exists for the creation and management of conservation areas in all countries of Tropical Southern 
Africa. These are summarised in Table 10.1 and reviewed ijelow. 

10.2.1 Forestry Sector 

Policy Forest policy has been developed for a number of countries in the subregion, reflecting the dual 
purposes of protection and management for sustainable use. The need to increase the area under reservation 
is also stated. For example, the national constitution of Namibia (1989) outlines state policy on the conservation 
and sustainable use of natural resources. This is complimented by the Nationhood Programme for an 
Independent Namibia, which emphasises the environmental and economic role of forests. In addition, the 
recently approved National Forest Policy states that 10% of the country's land area will be managed as state 
forests. Similarly, the government of 2^mbia has set a target to increase the area of state-managed forests to 

376 



at least IS % in the future. In Malawi, the Department of Forestry's 'Statement of Development Policies 
(1987-1996)" is currently guiding the management and control of the forest estate, while the accompanying five- 
year action plan (1988-1992) has identified a number of priority strategies including initiatives in community 
forestry and cooperation with other countries in the development of forest resources. 

Legislation Within Tropical Southern Africa, early legislation allowing for the creation of forest reserves dates 
back to 1921 in Tanzania, the 1930s in Madagascar and Rwanda, the 1940s in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, 
and the mid-19SOs in Mozambique. In almost all cases, these early acts have either been amended or new 
legislation adopted, mostly in the 1970s and 1980s. Forestry legislation has recently been passed in Botswana 
(1976) and Burundi (1989), while the origin and date of legislation creating forest reserves in Angola is 
unknown. 

Early legislation in Rwanda, and probably in a number of other countries in the subregion, made provision for 
the exploitation of timber resources in the interests of Euro[>ean settlers, while leaving Rwandanese nationals 
free to cut wood in accordance with customary rights. Most forest reserve networks today, however, have been 
established with both exploitation and conservation in mind, and, in the case of Tanzania, the development of 
management plans for forest reserves is stipulated in its legislation. 

Present forestry legislation throughout the subregion allows for the creation of one or more forest reserve 
designations, outlines provisions relating to forest exploitation and management, establishes management 
authorities, and sets out offences and accompanying penalties in coimection with forest resources and reserves. 
Related and subsidiary legislation to the principal acts exists in most countries, notable among these being the 
Acquisition of Land for Public Purposes Ordinance No. 19 (1948) of Malawi, which enables the proclamation 
of public lands, subsequently gazetted as forest reserves. 

In no less than six countries (Botswana, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia and Madagascar), the principal 
forest acts make provision for the establishment of private forest reserves, local authority forest reserves, 
community forests or village forests. These categories are generally governed by the same regulations set out 
for government reserves, and are usually managed by local authorities. Zimbabwe is unique in that it has 
distinct legislation governing the conservation and sustainable use of communal land. 

All but Mozambique and Madagascar have distinct wildlife and forestry laws. In Botswana, hunting is allowed 
within the forest reserve network, while in Zambia national parks are classified as conservation forests by the 
Forestry Department. 

10.2.2 Wildlife Sector 

Policy Most countries within the subregion have formulated, or are in the process of developing nature 
conservation policies which emphasise the importance of conservation areas in protecting wildlife and natural 
habitat. For example, the Wildlife Conservation Policy of Botswana, 1986 emphasises the importance of 
national parks and reserves, wildlife management areas, and the rational use of wildlife. Similarly, Malawi's 
Wildlife Policy Statement, 1963 contains provisions for the protection of wildlife and natural habitat, the control 
of hunting, and for conservation education programmes. Somewhat more extensive, the Ministry of Wildlife, 
Conservation and Tourism in Namibia has recently set out a number of aims and objectives for the next decade, 
including the development and maintenance of a network of conservation areas which will contain at least 10% 
of each habitat type, the proclamation of marine reserves, and the development of master plans and management 
policies for each conservation area. 

A second feature of many policies within the subregion is an emphasis on the role conservation areas play in 
support of rural development. For example, the Director of Wildlife ( 199 1 ) stated that the overall conservation 
goal of Tanzania is to integrate wildhfe conservation with rural development, and to maintain a viable network 
of conservation areas which will benefit rural people and provide for the conservation of flora and fauna. 
Likewise, the policies of Zambia and Zimbabwe, respectively, emphasise the protection and management of the 
parks and wildlife estate, and promote wildlife management as an economic form of sustainable resource use. 
Currently, the development of a national enviroimiental policy is a priority area in Angola. 



377 



Legislation Within the subregion, the majority of countries had pre-independence laws relating to wildlife 
conservation and the creation of conservation areas in the wildlife sector. Early examples include the passing 
of the first game law in Botswana in 1891, legislation passed in Rwanda (1925) which allowed for the creation 
of Virunga National Park, the 1925 Game Ordinance of Zambia, a decree of 1927 which established the first 
nature reserves in Madagascar, the Game and Fish Preservation Act, 1929 of Zimbabwe, and the 
"Regulamento", 1936 of Angola, which allowed for the establishment of national parks and reserves. These 
were subsequently amended or repealed, most recently in the 1970s (Angola, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, 
Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia), or 1980s (Burundi, Namibia, and Zimbabwe). 

There is recognition of the need to draft new conservation area legislation for Angola, while revision of the 
natural resources acts in Malawi is ongoing. The proposed Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Bill of 
Botswana is being promulgated and will amalgamate the existing Fauna Conservation Act and the National Parks 
Act, while the National Parks and Wildlife Act of Zambia has been redrafted and is currently before parliament. 
These new pieces of legislation will either create or redefine conservation area designations. 

Present nature conservation legislation in the subregion commonly provides for the establishment of national 
parks, game/nature reserves, sanctuaries, controlled hunting areas, and strict (integral) nature reserves. Other 
categories found include the international game park of Zambia, national recreation area of Namibia, and a 
single piece of legislation providing for the establishment and management of Ngorongoro Conservation Area 
in Tanzania. National parks and strict nature reserves tend to afford the highest degree of protection, while 
controlled hunting areas the least throughout the subregion. Wildlife management areas and game management 
areas, which are a feature of Botswana and Zambia, respectively, provide for conservation, local utilisation of 
wildlife resources, and often serve as buffer zones to the more strictly protected designations. In Zimbabwe, 
a number of parks and reserves are a part of the estate of the late Cecil John Rhodes and as such are also 
covered by the terms of the Rhodes Estate Act of 1978. 

10.2.3 Additional Sectors 

In Tanzania, the creation and management of marine reserves is provided for by the Fisheries Act No. 6, 1970, 
and the accompanying regulations of 1975. National monuments legislation has been passed in Burundi, 
Malawi, Namibia, and Zambia. 



10.3 MANAGED AREAS ADMINISTRATION 

10.3.1 Forestry Sector 

Administration of forestry is the responsibility of forest departments or services within the subregion. 
Exceptions to this are Botswana and Tanzania, where forestry is administered at the divisional level, Namibia, 
where a Forestry Directorate exists, and Zimbabwe where a Forestry Commission is the managing authority 
(Table 10. 1). Most have a long institutional history, dating from the turn of the century in a number of 
countries. 

Unlike all other countries of the subregion, where there are distinct agencies which administer conservation 
areas in the forestry and wildlife sectors, respectively, the Administration Forestifere of Madagascar is 
responsible for all conservation areas. In Namibia, the Forestry Directorate will be responsible for the 
management of forest reserves when the necessary enabling legislation is introduced. 

10.3.2 Wildlife Sector Many of the original game departments in the subregion were established for tsetse 
control and have since assumed conservation responsibilities. Further, the management of conservation areas 
today is closely tied to tourism in many countries. 

With the exception of Madagascar, management of conservation areas in the wildlife sector is the responsibility 
of the respective wildlife departments. Today, these departments, apart from those in Angola and Mozambique, 
operate independently of their respective forestry administrations. For example, jurisdiction lies with the 
Department of Wildlife and National Parks in Botswana, and with the Office of Tourism and National Parks 

378 



in Rwanda. Somewhat unique are Burundi, where management responsibility lies with the National Institute 
for the Environment and the Conservation of Nature; Mozambique, where Eduardo Mondlane University 
manages the partially-protected Inhaca Island; and Tanzania, where three agencies have management authority: 
the Division of Wildlife, which is responsible for game reserves and game controlled areas; Tanzania National 
Parks; and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority. In addition, while the majority of game reserves are 
controlled on a regional basis in Tanzania, seven are considered national projects and come directly under the 
management of the Wildlife Division. 

Management of conservation areas in the wildlife sector is linked closely to rural development in a number of 
countries. For example, responsibilities of the National Parks & Wildlife Service of Zambia include 
management of the Administration Management Design Programme for Game Management Areas, and the 
wildlife component of the Luangwa Integrated Rural Development Project, while the Department of National 
Parks & Wildlife Management of Zimbabwe oversees the Communal Areas Management Programme for 
Indigenous Resources projects throughout a number of districts in the country. 

10.3.3 Additional Sectors 

The creation and management of national monuments is the responsibility of the National Monuments Council 
in Namibia and the National Heritage Conservation Commission in Zambia, respectively. The Fisheries 
Division in the Ministry of Tourism, Natural Resources and Tourism, Tanzania, manages the seven marine 
reserves in the country. 

10.3.4 Non-Govemmental Organisations 

While there are no local NGOs which are exclusively responsible for the management of conservation areas, 
the Kalahari Conservation Society of Botswana funds projects relating to protected areas, the Wildlife Society 
of Zimbabwe promotes the establishment of wildlife areas, and the East Africa Wildlife Society and the Wildlife 
Conservation Society of Tanzania support the management of reserves in that country. 



10.4 MANAGED AREAS STATUS 

The managed areas system is mapped for each country within the subregion in Fig. 10.1-13. Details of 
individual conservation areas are given in Annex 10. 1 which also serves as a key to the maps. The bulk (over 
90%) of the conservation areas network (by total area) falls within the domam of the wildlife sector (Table 
10.3). 

10.4.1 Managed Areas within the Forestry Sector 

Coverage Natural reserved forests account for at least 5.2% of the total area of Tropical Southern Africa 
(Table 10.2). They are most extensive in Tanzania (14.2%), Rwanda (12.7%), Madagascar (10.6%), and 
Zambia (9.6 %), the latter having over 450 notiiied reserves. The reserved forest networks of all other countries 
in the subregion cover less than 10% of the respective country, while there are no notified reserves in Namibia. 

Of the 5.2% of natural reserved forests in the subregion, the majority (about 72%) are allocated for commercial 
production purposes (Table 10.2). All reserved forests in Mozambique, however, serve a conservation 
purpose, those in Malawi and Burundi are all considered protection forests, and 75 % of the forest estate in 
Madagascar is set aside for protection purposes. 

10.4.2 Conserration Areas within Forestry, Wildlife and Additional Sectors 

Coverage There are more than 650 notified conservation areas in Tropical Southern Africa, covering a total 
area of 99.9 million ha or 16 % of the subregion (Fig. 10. 1). The forestry sector is directly responsible for over 
370 conservation areas, covering a total area of approximately 9.1 million ha or 1.4% of the subregion. Most 
of these lie in Madagascar (279) and Malawi (70). The total coverage of conservation areas under additional 

sectors is minima l. 

379 



Approximately 13% of conservation areas are under total protection, covering 4.4% of area in the subregion 
(Table 10.3). Most of these fall within the wildlife sector. The rest are partially protected. 

The target of 10% of total area under protection for conservation purposes has been reached by eight of eleven 
countries of the subregion, including Zambia (29.7%), Tanzania (28.5%), Rwanda (21.0%) and Botswana 
(17.6%), which all have extensive conservation area networks. Least extensive are those of Burundi and 
Angola, both of which are about half way towards reaching the target. About 57% of the conservation area 
in Zambia and about 45 % of the area in Tanzania, however, is tied up in game management areas and game 
controlled areas, respectively, which make miniimil provision for habitat protection. 

Representativeness In a number of countries in the subregion, nature conservation areas have been established 
haphazardly in the past, with little regard to ecological or other criteria for their selection. This is reflected 
in the existing networks of Angola, where conservation areas were established first in zones of low agricultural 
or economic potential, and Burundi, where the current conservation area system is comprised mostly of montane 
habitat. In contrast, Botswana supports 14 major ecosystem types, nine of which are represented in national 
paiics and game reserves (Hannah et al., n.d.). Forest reserves in the country are found primarily in dry 
woodland types. 

In Madagascar, the establishment of conservation areas, beginning with the selection of ten nature reserves in 
1927, was to provide a representative sample of the many ecological features of the island (TUCNAJNEP/WWF, 
1987). Despite this intent, only about 8% of the country is included within the conservation area network, and 
not all native terrestrial forest communities are afforded protection. Fourteen additional sites have been 
proptosed to extend protection to the south-west and centre-east, to mangrove and wetland habitat, and to coral 
reefs (Nicoll and Langrand, 1989). 

Protection of the biotic communities in Malawi is extensive. Of the 29 communities recognised by Shaxson 
(1977), examples of 18 occur in conservation areas of the wildlife sector, while a number of others are found 
in the forest reserve network (Clarke and Bell, 1986). Extended protection to the deciduous miombo woodlands 
and the evergreen forest biome are considered priorities, among others. In Mozambique, increased protection 
is needed in highland and coastal forests, while in Namibia, the Ministry of Wildlife, Conservation & Tourism 
has set a target of protecting 10% of each habitat type (Grobler, 1991). In Tanzania, where conservation areas 
cover nearly 30% of its total area, recommendations to extend the conservation areas network to montane and 
lowland forests, and to establish conservation areas on Pemba and Zanzibar have been formulated (lUCN, 
1987b; Stuart & Adams, 1990). 

Zambia has a good conservation area network covering most major habitat types (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 
1986). Nevertheless, inadequately protected habitats include a number of montane habitats, and isolated patches 
of lowland and gallery forest in the north-west (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1986; Stuart & Adams, 1990). In 
Zimbabwe, additional protection has been recommended for lowland forest, quartz grassland and forest, and 
Parinari forests. 

Int^rity Using mean size as a measure of integrity, data in Table 10.4 indicate that forest reserves serving 
a conservation or protection function in Malawi and Zimbabwe tend to be small, the majority being less than 
10,000ha in size. In contrast, the reserves of Botswana, although small in number, have a mean size in excess 
of 30,000ha. Totally protected sites (strict nature reserves) under the jurisdiction of the Administration 
Forestifere of Madagascar have a mean size larger than 50,000ha. Extrapolating from Table 10.3, forest 
reserves serving a conservation or protection function in Mozambique tend to be large, with a mean size 
exceeding 135,000ha. 

In the wildlife sector, the partially and totally protected conservation areas of Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, 
and Namibia tend to be few in number but large in size, with means in excess of 300,000ha for each country. 
Both Tanzania and Zambia have respectable numbers of partially and totally protected areas, again with means 
larger than 300,000ha. The totally protected sites of Malawi, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe have mean sizes 
(>100,000ha) which are considerably larger than those of their respective partially protected sites, while 
conservation areas in Burundi tend to be on the small side. Conservation areas in additional sectors in the 
subregion are all afforded partial protection and are small in size. 

380 



The mean size of totally protected areas (51,776ha) in the forestry sector, made up exclusively of strict nature 
reserves, is about four times that of partially protected sites (12,980ha), comprising mostly forest reserves. In 
the wildlife sector, the mean size of totally protected areas (353,825ha) is slightly larger than that for partially 
protected sites {329,060ha). National parks constitute the bulk of the former category, and by definition tend 
to be relatively large areas to provide a range of services. Partially protected areas comprise mainly 
game/nature reserves, sanctuaries, and controlled hunting areas. Significantly, conservation areas in the wildlife 
sector tend to be considerably larger than those in the forestry sector. 

Effectiveness Apart from gaps in the representation of the subregion's biological diversity within existing 
conservation area networks, conservation efforts are limited by weaknesses in policy and legislation, inadequate 
institutional support and ineffective management. 

As mentioned in Section 10.2, nature conservation policies in the forestry sector have been formulated at least 
in Malawi, Namibia, and Zambia, while the majority of countries in the subregion have nature conservation 
policies in the wildlife sector. 

For a number of countries, legislation needs strengthening or updating. For example, wildlife legislation in 
Angola is in urgent need of revision, particularly when one considers that the existing designations of 
conservation area do not conform to international standards (lUCN, 1987a). In Botswana, the proposed Wildlife 
Conservation and National Parks Bill will upgrade a number of conservation areas, and make provisions for 
legally established wildlife management areas in the country. In Malawi, a weakness of forestry legislation is 
that nearly all of the country's statutes were enacted prior to independence and occasionally revised in the 1960s 
(Vardy, 1982). A new act governing natural resources management in Malawi is being prepared. Significantly, 
new forestry legislation (since 1980), allowing for the creation of various forest reserve designations, has been 
passed in Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Enactment of conservation area legislation is hampered 
in a number of countries by civil unrest or lack of resources. 

Institutional resources for conservation area management are inadequate for almost all coimtries within the 
subregion. Constraints include a lack of adequately trained staff, funds, resources, and in one or two cases, 
an infrastructure which is almost non-existent for the management of conservation areas. These problems are 
most acute in Burundi, Mozambique, and Angola, where, in the latter, the Forestry Development Institute 
operates on less than US$ 20,000 per year for conservation areas management (IDF, 1991). Further hindrances 
to conservation area management are poor communication and transportation networks in a number of countries, 
rendering many sites inaccessible. A lack of coordination between agencies managing conservation areas has 
been identified as a problem in several countries of the subregion. 

Low priority and a general lack of commitment of resources for conservation areas is largely responsible for 
many of the deficiencies in their management. This situation is exacerbated by countries having an tmclear 
programme or weak planning of their conservation area networks. Very few conservation areas of the subregion 
have management plans. The majority of conservation areas in Angola and Mozambique, and game controlled 
areas in Tanzania exist on pa|}er only, while Jolly (1990) has noted that many of the conservation areas in 
Madagascar are protected in name only, most being unprotected from land and animal poachers. Exceptions 
to these general trends are found in Namibia and Malawi, where conservation areas are well managed. In the 
case of Malawi, a master plan for national parks and wildlife, and protected area plans for conservation areas 
in the northern, central and southern regions were prepared in the early 1980s (Clarke, 1983 a,b,c,d; 
Mackinnon & Mackinnon, 1986; Stuart & Adams, 1990). Further, Botswana is actively managing its forest 
reserves, and has adopted a high cost/low volume tourism policy for the reserves, envisaging that considerable 
financial and ecological dividends will be realised in the long-term (Modise, pers. comm., 1991). 

Common threats to the subregion's conservation areas include subsistence and commercial poaching, the growth 
of human settlements, illegal grazing, shifting cultivation, the unauthorised extraction of timber, fuelwood and 
minor forest products, uncontrolled bushfires, and in the cases of Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia, mineral 
prospecting. Other threats include rice cultivation in Malawi, hydroelectric developments and the expansion 
of industrial activities in Zambia, and forest swamp reserves are imder threat from drainage plans in Namibia. 
These threats are compounded by rapidly growing populations in the subregion, and civil unrest in a number 
of coimtries. 

381 



10.4.3 Contribution of the Forestry Sector to Nature Conservation 

Data in Table 10.2 indicate that the contribution of the forestry sector to nature conservation is small (1.4%) 
in terms of the total area of the subregion under protection and conservation forest. This percentage, however, 
represents minimum coverage as data are not available for all countries. For example, an unknown amount of 
commercial forest area in Zambia serves a protection function in guarding hilly slopes and sources of streams 
or rivers. Nevertheless, over 90% of the conservation area network falls within the domain of the wildlife 
sector, covering 14.4% of total area of the subregion (Table 10.3). 



10.5 FUTURE PROSPECTS 

10.5.1 Expanding the Conservation Area Network 

Official proposals to expand the conservation area network total 14.6 million ha or 2.3% of the total area of 
the subregion (Table 10.3). These improvements to the network affect 10.7 million ha in Botswana, 1.3 million 
ha in Malawi, and 1 .5 million ha in Mozambique. The establishment of wildlife management areas in Botswana 
will form buffer zones around most national parks and game reserves. Other significant extensions to existing 
national networks are planned for Madagascar and Tanzania, while extended protection will come about in 
Namibia through the creation of more conservation areas in the wildlife sector and the notification of forest 
reserves. 

10.5.2 Other National Initiatives 

Strengthening networks A variety of initiatives to strengthen conservation areas plaiming and management 
are being implemented or formulated. In Rwanda, a project entitled 'Tourisme et Pares Nationaux" ran from 
1974 to 1990, the principal objectives being to develop infrastructure and tourism in conservation areas, and 
to provide equipment and technical assistance in park planning and management. Following this, a new 
programme is currently being planned (ORTPN, 1991). The Elephant Conservation Plan for Angola outlines 
a three-phase programme spread over the next five years. Actions within this programme include the 
establishment of an effective conservation area network and the creation of a state wildlife and conservation 
authority. In addition, regional Southern African Development Coordination Conference sub-sector proposals 
include infrastructure development ia conservation areas of Angola (IDF, 1991). In Madagascar, lUCN and 
WWF are giving considerable support to improving the management of parks and reserves. As of 1991, there 
were no fewer than 29 separate WWT projects in the country. The World Bank, interested in the commercial 
possibilities of the proposed Kruger/Limpopo International Park, is considering a US$ 12 million loan to 
Mozambique to get the scheme started (Caplan, 1991). In Tanzania, the Report on the Conservation of 
Ecosystems and Genetic Resources under the Tropical Forestry Action Plan contains a "Conservation Action 
Plan", drawn up for forest areas, which includes a number of projects for certain key areas, notably closed 
forest and mangrove forest (Bensted-Smith and Msangi, 1989). Other multi-agency projects include the 
planning and development of marine and terrestrial protected areas in the country. 

Overcoming Economic Constraints Funding is a major factor which limits the effective management of 
conservation areas. In addition to the aid projects mentioned above, the Elephant Action Plans, prepared for 
most countries of the subregion, indicate fiinding and project priority areas. 

In Namibia, income from hunting, tourism, and wildlife products is second only to the mining and fishing 
industries (Berry, 1990), while in Rwanda, tourism, based on the national parks, has been promoted vigorously 
and was the third largest foreign exchange earner in 1988 (Perlez, 1988; Wilson, 1991). Total earnings for the 
Wildlife Division in Tanzania were about US$ 2.6 million, while Tanzania National Parks earned over US$ 3.5 
million, and Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority received over US$ 1 . 84 million in revenue in 1990 (WD, 
1991). In total, Tanzania earns more than US$ 70 million from wildlife in the form of tourism, sport hunting, 
live animal trade, and, fonneriy, from ivory (ITC, 1989). Further, the Tanzania Wildlife Protection Fund 
channels fiinds and other facilities to national organisations involved in wildlife management. 



382 



Under the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources projects in Zimbabwe, 
considerable revenue is being accrued by management trusts involved in community management. As of 1990, 
the estimated total revenue from hunting safaris in these areas was about US$ 4 million, of which approximately 
50% accrued directly to the districts involved (Metcalf, 1990). US-AID and WWF have provided support for 
the Administration Management Design programme for game management areas in Zambia, while wildlife 
management areas are being developed through the Natural Resources Management Project fimded by US- AID 
in Botswana. In response to economic constraints, the Direc^ao Nacional de Florestas e Fauna Bravia is 
currently considering privatising the management of Mozambique's wildlife resources (Ministerio de 
Agricultura, 1991). 

ImproTing Management Within the subregion, there are numerous initiatives which attempt to link 
conservation with development in and around conservation areas. Two examples include the goal to integrate 
protection and management into rural development programmes in Angola, and the development of wildlife 
management areas in Botswana to allow for conservation and controlled utilisation of wildlife outside 
conservation areas. In Madagascar, the World Bank has targeted the country in a pilot cooperative venture to 
integrate conservation and economic growth. An "Environmental Action Plan" has been drawn up, one of its 
features being the equal division of hinds: half in support of conservation in reserves, and half to the local 
people (Jolly, 1990). 

Integrated rural development programmes that include provision for local communities to benefit from wildlife 
have been in operation in several parts of Malawi for some time, and it has been suggested that these 
programmes be extended to the Lower Shire Valley (Stuart & Adams, 1990). Further, the Department of 
Forestry's current five-year action plan (1988-1992) has identified initiatives in community forestry and is 
encouraging multiple land use systems as priority strategies. In Rwanda, recommendations have been made to 
develop a scheme to involve local people in the management of conservation areas, while in Tanzania it has 
been proposed to set aside wildlife management areas and to develop wildlife-based industries for the benefit 
of village communities and the private sector (WD, 1991). Further, Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania 
was established as a multiple use management area to promote the conservation of wildlife and other natural 
resources and the interests of the 25,000 resident Masai pastoralists. 

Currently, two major parallel initiatives testing different models for involving local communities in sustainable 
use of wildlife resources in Zambia are the Administration Management Design Programme for Game 
Management Areas and the Luangwa Integrated Rural Development Project (Lungu, 1990). The former 
provides a national policy framework for community-based wildlife conservation and management, linking 
wildlife benefits to local communities for conservation in game management areas. By comparison, the latter 
is more encompassing and is intended to be a multi-sectoral project for economic development in the central 
part of the Luangwa Valley, including wildlife management and initiatives aimed at development of agriculture, 
forestry, fisheries, water resources and infrastructure (Lungu, 1990). In Zimbabwe, the buffer zone concept 
was introduced in 1960, and considerable emphasis is placed on the role of conservation areas in raising rural 
hving standards and generating revenue through domestic and foreign tourism and utilisation of wildlife (Child, 
1984). Outside conservation areas, the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources 
projects have been initiated in at least thirteen districts of the country. Half the revenue realised from sport 
hunting and other activities on such lands accrues directly to the districts involved, the other half to the 
respective management trusts (Metcalf, 1990). 

10.5.3 International Initiatives 

Conventions and Progranunes Most countries within the subregion participate in at least one international 
convention or programme concerned with conservation areas (Table 10.5). All countries except Angola, 
Botswana, Namibia, and Rwanda have accepted or ratified the Convention Concerning the World Cultural and 
Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention). Of those countries which are party to the Convention, only 
Bunudi and Mozambique have not had natural properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. 

Zambia is the only country of the subregion to have acceded to or ratified the Convention on Wetlands of 
International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), while Madagascar, Rwanda and 
Tanzania participate in the Unesco Man and the Biosphere Programme. To date, two biosphere reserves have 

383 



been accepted in Tanzania, one in Rwanda, and one in Madagascar. 

All countries of the subregion, with the exceptions of Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe, have either ratified or 
are signatories to the African Convention, which provides for the establishment of several conservation area 
designations. Most countries are members of the Southern African Development Coordination Conference 
(SADCC) and the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilisation of the Soil 
(SARCCUS), which both have sectors responsible for the conservation and management of natural resources. 

Cooperative agreements Despite a number of security problems in the subregion, there are no fewer than 
thirteen transfrontier conservation areas between countries in and around Tropical Southern Africa. Botswana 
is currently considering a collaborative programme for the management of the contiguous Gemsbok National 
Park (Botswana) and Kalahari Gemsbok National Paric of South Africa, and is assessing a number of sites for 
potential transborder parks with its other neighbours. Mozambique and the Southern African governments of 
South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland are discussing the creation of the Kruger/Limpopo International Park, 
which, if estabhshed, would comprise one of the largest national parks in the world (Ministerio de Agricultura, 
1991). 



10.6 PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 

Priorities for conservation action in the subregion were reviewed as part of the lUCN Systems review of the 
j^otropical Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986), and in the accompanying Action Strategy (lUCN, 
1987b), but these are somewhat dated. 

Priorities have more recently been reviewed in lUCN (1992) in preparation for the IV World Parks Congress. 
These are generalised, recognising that translation of priorities into action will vary according to national 
conservation objectives, history and political will. They will provide a foundation to the more specific priorities 
identified in this report and summarised in Table 10.6. 

In conclusion, progress throughout the subregion has been variable, ranging from the well established and 
managed conservation areas of Malawi and Namibia to the almost non-existent networks of Angola and 
Mozambique. Not surprisingly, much of this situation is a direct reflection of the political stability in the first 
two cases and the civil unrest in the latter two. Other countries of the subregion fall in between these two 
extremes. Governments of Tropical Southern Africa are well aware of the need to integrate rural development 
with conservation, and have made remarkable progress in initiating such programmes in and around 
conservation areas of the subregion. 



384 



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Ministerio de Agriculture (1991). Elephant Conservation Plan for Mozambique. Direc^ao Nacional de 

Florestas e Fauna Bravia, Maputo, Mozambique. 47 pp. 
NicoU, M.E., and Langrand, O. (1989). Madagascar: revue de la conservation et des aires protegies. WWF, 

Gland, Switzerland. 374 pp. 
ORTPN (1991). Plan de conservation de I'^Iephant au Rwanda. Unpublished report. Office Rwandais du 

Tourisme. 43 pp. 
Perlez, J. (1988). Compromise keeps Rwanda's dwindling families of gorillas alive. The Globe and Mail, 

27 December. P. A15. 
Shaxson, T.F. (1977). A map of the distribution of major biotic communities in Malawi. J. Soc. Malawi 

30: 35^8. (Unseen). 
Stuart, S.N. and Adams, R.J. (1990). Biodiversity in sub-saharan Africa and its islands: conservation, 

management and sustainable use. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 242 pp. 



385 



Vardy, R.G. (Compiler) (1982). Draft environmental profile of Malawi. Arid Lands Information Centre, 

University of Arizona, Tuscon, USA. 195 pp. 
WD (1991). Elephant conservation plan - Tanzania. Wildlife Division, Ministry of Tourism, Natural 

Resources and the Environment, Dar-es-Salaam. 152 pp. 
Wilson, R. (1991). The confUct in Rwanda and its impact on the mountain gorilla. Oryx 25: 119-120. 



386 



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N 



Table 10.2 Extent of notified natural forests, classified by forest function. Units are in sq. km, 
followed by % total area. Full data, with sources, are given in Annex 10.2. 



Country Total FOREST FUNCTION 

SUBREGION area Production Protection Conservation Total 



Angola 


1,246,700 


18,560 


(1.5) 












18,560 (1.5) 


Botswana 


581,730 


3,918 


(0.7) 







638 


(0.1) 


4,556 (0.8) 


Burundi 


27,830 







430 


(1.5) 







430 (1.5) 


Madagascar' 


587,040 


15,700 


(2.7) 







46.273 


(7.9) 


61,973(10.6) 


Malawi^' 


118,480 







6,180 


(5.2) 







6,180 (5.2) 


Mozambique' 


799,380 












19,400 


(2.4) 


19,400 (2.4) 


Namibia 


824,290 

















(0.0) 


Rwanda' 


26,340 


1,380 


(5.2) 


760 


(2.9) 


1,201 


(4.6) 


3,341 (12.7) 


Tanzania'-^ 


945,090 


118,000(12.5) 







16,000 


(1.7) 


134,000(14.2) 


Zambia 


752,610 


72,553 


(9.6) 












72,553 (9.6) 


Zimbabwe 


390,580 


8,957 


(2.3) 


22 ( 


+) 


49( 


+) 


9,028 (2.3) 



TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA 

6,300,070 239,068 (3.8) 7,392 (0.1) 83,561 (1.3) 330,021 (5.2) 



' A more thorough breakdown of conservation forest into non-forest and plantation categories is not 

available (see Annex 10.2.2). The totals for natural forest under conservation, therefore, may be 

inflated. 
^ The breakdown of natural forest into protection function, and/or the distinction between 

conservation and protection forest, is not available. 
' Total for conservation/protection forest is underestimated because the extent of conservation 

working circles is not included. 



391 



Table 103 Extent of notified and proposed conservation areas, classified by sector and national 
designation. Management categories are assigned to designations based on national 
legislation (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive uses; T = total 
protection with no extractive uses). Totals for proposed sites may be inflated because they 
may include areas of properties already protected but proposed for upgrading to higher 
conservation status. Details of individual properties are given in Annex 10.2. N is the total 
number of conservation areas. 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 


Man. 
Cat. 




Notified 






Proposed 




N 


Area ( ha ) 


N 


Area(h 


a) 


ANGOLA (1,246,700 sq. km) 
















Wildlife Sector 

Integral Nature Reserve 

National Park 

Partial Reserve 

Regional Nature Park 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 


T 
T 

P 
P 


2 
6 
4 

1 
13 


828,200 

5,423,000 

1,920,000 

10,000 

8,181,200 

( 6. 


5) 









( 


o ooooo 
o 


Totals 

(% total area) 




13 


8,181,200 
( 6. 


5) 





( 



0.0) 



BOTSWANA (581,730 sq. km) 
Forest Sector 



Forest Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 


P 


2 

2 


63,750 
63,750 
( 0.1) 













( 0.0) 


Wildlife Sector 
Game Reserve 
National Park 
Sanctuary 

Wildlife Management Area 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 


P 
T 

P 
P 


7 
3 
4 

14 


6,410,100 
3,807,000 
9,910 * 

10,227,010 * 
( 17.5) 








12 

12 


10, 
10, 


702 
,702 






,700 * 
,700 * 
( 18.4) 


Totals 

(% total area) 




16 


10,290,760 * 
( 17.6) 


12 


10, 


702 


,700 * 
( 18.4) 



BURUNDI (27,830 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Protection forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
National Park 
Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Additional Sector, or sector unknown 
Natural Monument 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



p 


? 




43,000 
43,000 
( 1.5) 


? 




20,000 
20,000 
( 0.7) 


p 
p 


3 
5 
8 


88,865 

12,125 
100,990 
( 3.6) 













( 0.0) 


rn 

p 


2 
2 


35 

35 

( 0.0) 










( 0.0) 




10 


144,025 
( 5.1) 





20,000 
( 0.7) 



392 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



MADAGASCAR (587,040 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Classified forest 
Hunting Reserve 
Marine National Park 
National Park 
Reforestation Area 
Special Reserve 
Strict Nature Reserve 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

MALAWI (118,480 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Forest Reserve 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Game Reserve 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

MOZAMBIQUE (799,380 sg. km) 



P 


158 


2, 


,671,051 










p 


4 




15,000 


* 








p 












1 


• 


p 


6 




171,307 




3 


450,567 


p 


77 




823,798 










p 


23 




376,580 










T 


11 




569,542 












279 


4, 


,627,278 
( 7. 


* 

9) 


4 


450,567 * 
( 0.8) 




279 


4, 


,627,278 
( 7. 


* 
9) 


4 


450,567 * 
( 0.8) 



P 


70 




617,984 * 


88 


1, 


,267 


,079 * 




70 




617,984 * 
( 5.2) 


88 


1, 


,267 


,079 * 
( 10.7) 


P 


4 




361,400 












T 


5 




696,200 














9 


1 


,057,600 

( 9.0) 










( 0.0) 




79 


1 


,675,584 * 
( 14.2) 


88 


1, 


,267 


,079 * 
( 10.7) 



Forest Sector 



Forest Reserve 




P 


14 


1,940,000 * 












Subtotals 






14 


1,940,000 * 












(% total area) 








( 2.4) 








( 0.0) 


Wildlife Sector 


















Faunal Reserve 




P 


1 


2,000 












Game Reserve 




P 


5 


2,810,000 












Marine National 


Park 


P 


1 


377,000 


1 






* 


National Park 




P 


4 


1,590,000 


4 


1, 


,500 


,000 * 


Wildlife Utilization Area 


P 


2 


2,200,000 












Subtotals 






13 


6,979,000 


5 


1, 


,500 


,000 * 


(% total area) 








( 8.8) 








( 1.9) 


Totals 






27 


8,919,000 * 


5 


1, 


500 


,000 * 


(% total area) 








( 11.2) 








( 1.9) 



NAMIBIA (824,290 sg. km) 

Wildlife Sector 
Game Park 
National Park 
Nature Reserve 
Recreation Area 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 



P 


13 


8,005,635 





T 


3 


2,360,400 





P 


2 


6,005 





P 


2 


782,900 







20 


11,154,940 

( 13.5) 






0) 



393 



Man. 
Cat. 




Notified 




P 


roposed 




N 


Area (ha) 




N 


Area (ha) 


ector unknovm 
P 


1 
1 


50 

50 

( 0. 


0) 






( 





0.0) 




21 


11,154,990 
( 13. 


5) 





( 



0.0) 



p 
p 


3 
? 

3 


120,100 
76,000 
196,100 
( 7.5) 








( 





0.0) 


p 

T 


1 
2 
3 


30,000 
327,000 
357,000 
( 13.5) 








( 






0.0) 




6 


553,100 
( 21.0) 





( 



0.0) 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Natural Monument 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

RWANDA (26,340 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 

Integral Forest Reserve 

Protected Forest 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 
Hunting Reserve 
National Park 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 

TANZANIA (945,090 sq. km) 

Forest Sector 

Forest Reserve P ? 1,600,000 

Subtotals 1,600,000 

(% total area) ( 1.7) ( 0.0) 

Wildlife Sector 

Conservation Area T 1 828,800 

Game Controlled Area P 48 11,616,502 

Game Reserve P 18 8,970,050 * 3 500,000 * 

National Park T 11 3,909,975 1 120,000 

Subtotals 78 25,325,327 * 4 620,000 * 

(% total area) ( 26.8) ( 0.6) 

Additional Sector, or sector unknown 

Marine Reserve P 7 0*0 

Subtotals 7 0*0 

(% total area) ( 0.0) ( 0.0) 

Totals 85 26,925,327 * 4 620,000 * 

(% total area) ( 28.5) ( 0.6) 

ZAMBIA (752,610 sg. km) 

Wildlife Sector 

Game Management Area 

National Park 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Additional Sector, or sector unknown 

Natural Monument 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 
Totals 

(% total area) 



P 


32 


16,048,800 










T 


19 


6,359,000 












51 


22,407,800 














( 29.7) 




( 


0.0) 


m 
P 


1 


1,900 












1 


1,900 














( 0.0) 




( 


0.0) 




52 


22,409,700 














( 29.7) 




( 


0.0) 



394 



COUNTRY 
Sector 

National designation 



Man. 
Cat. 



Notified 



Area (ha) 



Proposed 



Area (ha) 



ZIMBABWE (390,580 sg. km) 

Forest Sector 
State Forest 
Subtotals 
(% total area) 

Wildlife Sector 

Botanical Reserve 

National Park 

Recreation Park 

Safari Area 

Sanctuary 

Subtotals 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



T 
T 
P 
P 
P 



14 
11 
15 
17 
7 
64 



69 



7,017 
7,017 
( 0.0) 



1,100 
2,703,900 

346,001 * 
1,892,774 
18,677 
4,962,452 * 
( 12.6) 

4,969,469 * 
( 12.6) 





0.0) 



0) 



0) 



TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA (6,300,070 sg. km) 

373 



Forestry Sector 

(% total area) 
Wildlife Sector 

(% total area) 
Additional Sector or sector unknown 

(% total area) 



summary by sector 
92 
22 




9,095,129 * 
( 1.4) 
273 90,753,319 * 
( 14.4) 
11 1,985 * 
( 0.0) 



1,737,646 * 
( 0.3) 
12,822,700 * 
( 2.0) 


( 0.0) 



TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA (6,300,070 sg. km) - summary by management category 



Total protection 

(% total area) 
Partial protection 

(% total area) 
Degree of protection unknown 

(% total area) 

Totals 

(% total area) 



88 27,814,117 

( 4.4) 
569 72,036,316 * 
( 11-4) 


( 0.0) 

657 99,850,433 * 
( 15.8) 



2 120,000 * 
( 0.0) 
112 14,440,346 * 
( 2.3) 



( 0.0) 

114 14,560,346 * 
( 2.3) 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data for either number of sites or 
area covered. 



395 



Table 10.4(a) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive 
uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) 
Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 
size 
(ha) 


Number 


in each 


size class (ha) 


a) Forestry Sector 


<1000 


1001- 
10,000 


10001- 
100,000 >100,000 


BOTSWANA 
















Notified sites 


P 

Total 


2 
2 


31,875 
31,875 










2 
2 






MADAGASCAR 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


T 

P 
Total 

P 
Total 


11 

30 

41 

3 

3 


51,776 

18,762 

27,620 

150,189 

150,189 


1 

4 
5 




1 

9 

10 






8 

17 
25 

1 
1 


1 

1 
2 
2 


MALAWI 
















Notified sites 
Proposed sites 


P 
Total 

P 
Total 


65 
65 
63 
63 


9,507 

9,507 

20,112 

20,112 


21 
21 
29 
29 


28 
28 
22 
22 


16 
16 
11 
11 





1 
1 


MOZAMBIQUE 
















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


1 
1 


4,200 
4,200 






1 
1 










RWANDA 
















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


3 
3 


40,033 
40,033 






1 
1 


2 
2 






ZIMBABWE 
















Notified sites 


P 
Total 


5 
5 


1,403 
1,403 


2 
2 


3 

3 










TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA 














Notified sites 


T 

P 

Total 


11 
106 
117 


51,776 
12,980 
16,628 


1 
27 
28 


1 
42 
43 


8 
37 
45 


1 



1 


Proposed sites 


P 
Total 


66 
66 


26,024 
26,024 


29 
29 


22 
22 


12 
12 


3 
3 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 

to N in Table 10.3, because the areas of some individual properties may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



396 



Table 10.4(b) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive 
uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) 
Additional sectors. 



b) Wiltilife Sector 



Mean 
size 
(ha) 



Number in each size class (ha) 

<1000 1001- 10001- 

10,000 100,000 >100,000 



ANGOLA 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


8 

5 

13 


781,400 
386,000 
629,323 


BOTSWANA 










NotifiecJ 
Proposed 


sites 
sites 


T 

P 
Total 

P 
Total 


3 
10 
13 

7 
7 


1,269,000 

642,001 

786,693 

1,528,957 

1,528,957 


BURUNDI 










Notified 


sites 


P 

Total 


8 
8 


12,623 
12,623 


MALAWI 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


5 
4 
9 


139,240 

90,350 

117,511 


MOZAMBIQUE 








Notified 
Proposed 


sites 
sites 


P 
Total 

P 
Total 


13 
13 

1 
1 


536,846 

536,846 

1,500,000 

1,500,000 


NAMIBIA 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


3 
17 
20 


786,800 
517,325 
557,747 


RWANDA 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


2 

1 
3 


163,500 

30,000 

119,000 


TANZANIA 










Notified 
Proposed 


sites 
sites 


T 

P 
Total 

T 

P 
Total 


12 

65 

77 

1 

2 

3 


394,897 
316,716 
328,900 
120,000 
250,000 
206,666 




3 
3 






1 
10 

11 







2 
2 






4 
18 
22 






6 
3 
9 



3 
5 
8 

7 
7 








1 


1 



7 
34 

41 

1 
2 
3 



397 



b) Wildlife Sector 



Mean 
size 
(ha) 



Number in each size class (ha) 

<1000 1001- 10001- 

10,000 100,000 >100,000 



ZAMBIA 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


19 
32 

51 


334,684 
501,525 
439,368 


ZIMBABWE 










Notified 


sites 


T 

P 

Total 


25 
38 
63 


108,200 
59,406 
78,769 









14 

8 

22 



2 

2 



1 
10 
11 



6 

5 
11 



5 
12 
17 



11 
27 
38 



5 

8 

13 



TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA 



Notified sites 



Proposed sites 



T 

P 

Total 

T 

P 

Total 



77 
193 
270 



353,825 
329,060 
336,123 



1 120,000 

10 1,270,270 

11 1,165,700 



15 
21 
36 







5 
32 
37 








20 
47 
67 







37 

93 

130 

1 
10 
11 



Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 

to N in Table 10.3, because the areas of some individual properties may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



398 



Table 10.4(c) Frequency distributions of notified and proposed conservation area sizes, with means, 
classified by management category (P = partial protection with local, sustainable extractive 
uses; T = total protection with no extractive uses), for (a) Forestry, (b) Wildlife and (c) 
Additional sectors. 







N 


Mean 
size 
(ha) 


Number 


in 1 


each 


size c 


lass 


1 (ha) 




c) Additional 




<1000 


1001 


- 


10001 


- 






Sector ( 8 ) 










10 


,000 


100, 


000 


>100, 


000 


BURUNDI 






















Notified sites 


P 


2 


17 


2 



















Total 


2 


17 


2 

















NAMIBIA 






















Notified sites 


P 


1 


50 


1 



















Total 


1 


50 


1 

















ZAMBIA 






















Notified sites 


P 


1 


1,900 







1 














Total 


1 


1,900 







1 












TROPICAL SOUTHERN AFRICA 




















Notified sites 


P 


4 


496 


3 




1 














Total 


4 


496 


3 




1 













Note that N (the total number of conservation areas) does not necessarily equate 

to N in Table 10.3, because the areas of some individual properties may be unknown. 

Countries for which there are no relevant data are not included in the table. 



399 



Table 10.5 State parties to international (and regional) conventions or programmes concerning the 
conservation of natural areas, together with the number of properties (natural or mixed 
natural/cultural in the case of the World Heritage Convention) recognised under respective 
conventions in brackets. 





World Heritage 
Convention 


Biosphere 
Reserves' 


Ramsar 
Convention 


AfricaN 
Convention 


Angola 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Botswana 


- 


- 


- 


S 


Burundi 


1982 (0) 


- 


- 


S 


Madagascar 


1983 (1) 


1990 (1) 


- 


R 


Malawi 


1982 (1) 


- 


- 


R 


Mozambique 


1982 (0) 


- 


- 


S 


Namibia 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Rwanda 


- 


1983 (1) 


- 


R 


Tanzania 


1977 (4) 


1981 (2) 


- 


S 


Zambia 


1984 (1) 


- 


1991 (2) 


R 


Zimbabwe 


1982 (2) 


- 


- 


- 



'Unesco MAB Project 8 
R = ratified 
S = signatory 

A number of countries in the subregion are members of the Subcommittee of Forestry, Fisheries and 
Wildlife of the South African Development Coordination Conference. 



400 



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o 



60 






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,P 



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B 

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13 

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O 

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a 



a 



s 



.5 
o 

o 
S 






.a 

5 



■s. 

3 



03 



il 

= 3 

■g § 
S E 

O on 

^ s 
a I 



Z § 






= -s 



!£• 

1£ 

2 ■- 

•i ° 

Z c 
-= I 



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§ 



^1 



0) u 

3 i 



5 " 

a = 



II 






•a 



•a 



:t3 



'H 

s 



" o 

■a H 
§^ 

-S t 

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o 
i 

IS 








a 


JJ 


i! 






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■SI 


D 


o 



■a 



a w 
u a 



o u 

§ >< 

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c .2 

a i 

w z 



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a: 



P 2 

s « 



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o 



a. 8 



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•s. 



Annex 10.1 List of conservation areas. Locations of most notified conservation areas are shown in the 
accompanying maps in Part III 



ANGOLA 



Integral Nature Reserves 

1 Ilheu dos Passaros 

2 Luando 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



200 1973 
828,000 1955 
828,200 ha 



National Parks 


3 


Bikuar 


4 


lona 


5 


Kameia 


6 


Kangandala 


7 


Kisama 


8 


Mupa 




Subtotal 


Partial Reserves 


9 


Bufalo 


10 


Luiana 


11 


Mavinga 


12 


Mocamedes 




Subtotal 


Reg: 


Lonal Nature Park 


13 


Chimalavera 




Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







790,000 




1964 






1,515,000 




1964 






1,445,000 




1938 






63,000 




1970 






950,000 




1957 






660,000 




1964 


6 


sites 


5,423,000 

40,000 
840,000 
595,000 
445,000 


ha 


1974 
1966 
1966 
1960 


4 


sites 


1,920,000 
10,000 


ha 


1974 


1 


site 


10,000 


ha 




13 


sites 


8,181,200 


ha 







sites 




ha 





402 



BOTSWANA 



Forest Reserves 

1 Kasane 

2 Kasane Extension 

Subtotal 

Game Reserves 

3 Central Kalahari 

4 Gaborone 

5 Khutse 

6 Mabuasehube 

7 Makgadikgadi Pans 

8 Mannyelanong 

9 Moremi 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



7 sites 



16,250 




1968 


47,500 




1981 


63,750 


ha 




5,180,000 




1961 


300 




1980 


260,000 




1971 


166,500 




1971 


413,000 




1970 


300 




1985 


390,000 




1965 


6,410,100 


ha 





National Parks 

10 Chobe 

11 Gemsbok 

12 Nxai Pan 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



1,057,000 1968 
2,600,000 1971 
150,000 1971 
3,807,000 ha 



Sanctuaries 

13 Bathaen 

14 Maun 

15 Mogabane 

16 Nnwane 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Wildlife Management Areas) 
Grootlaagte 
Kedia 
Kgalagadi 
Kweneng 
Linyanti 

Matlho-a-Phuduhudu 
Nata Statelands 
Ngamiland Statelands 
Nunga 

Okavango Delta 
Okwa 

Southern District 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







470 








8,500 








940 




4 


sites 


9,910 

390,800 
2,500,000 

881,600 

1,670,500 

1,388,000 
1,361,800 
2,510,000 


ha* 


12 


sites 


10,702,700 


ha* 


16 


sites 


10,290,760 


ha* 


12 


sites 


10,702,700 


ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



403 



BURUNDI 



National Parks 

1 Kibira 

2 Rusizi 

3 Ruvubu 

Subtotal 

Natural Monuments 

4 Chutes de Karera 

5 Nyakazu Gorge 

Subtotal 

Nature Reserves 

6 Bururi Forest 

7 Kigwena Forest 

8 Lac Rwihinda 

9 Monge Forest 

10 Rumonge-Vyanda Forest 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







40,000 




1933 






5,235 










43,630 






3 


Bites 


88,865 

15 

20 


ha 




2 


sites 


35 

3,300 

400 

425 

2,000 

6,000 


ha 


1951 
1951 

1990 
1986 


5 


sites 


12,125 


ha 




10 


sites 


101,025 


ha 







sites 




ha 





404 



MADAGASCAR 



Hunting Reserves 

1 Lac Ihotry 

2 Lac Kasanga 

3 Lac Kinkony 

4 Lac Masama et Bemamba 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

5 Isalo 

6 Mananara Marine 

7 Mananara Terrestrial 

8 Mantadia 

9 Montagne d'Ambre 

10 Ranomafana 

Subtotal 

Special Reserves 

11 Ambatovaky 

12 Ambohijanahary 

13 Ambohitantely 

14 Analamerana 

15 Andranomena 

16 Anjanaharibe-Sud 

17 Ankarana 

18 Bemarivo 

19 Beza-Mahafaly 

20 Bora 

21 Cap Sainte Marie 

22 Foret d'Ambre 

23 Kalambatritra 

24 Kasijy 

25 Mangerivola 

26 Maningozo 

27 Manombo 

28 Manongarivo 

29 Marotandrano 

30 Nosy Mangabe 

31 Perinet-Analamazaotra 

32 Pic d'lvohibe 

33 Tampoketsa d' Analamaitso 

Subtotal 

Strict Nature Reserves 

34 Andohahela 

35 Andringitra 

36 Ankaraf antsika 

37 Betampona 

38 Lokobe 

39 Marojejy 

40 Tsaratanana 

41 Tsimanampetsotsa 

42 Tsingy de Bemaraha 

43 Tsingy de Namoroka 

44 Zahamena 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Marine National Park) 
Grand Recif 
Subtotal 

Proposed (National Parks) 
Presqu'ile Masoala 
Ramomatan 
Soalala 
Subtotal 



1972 



4 sites 



6 sites 



23 sites 



11 site 



1 site 



3 sites 



15,000 


1972 




1972 


15,000 


ha* 


81,540 


1962 


1,000 


1989 


23,000 


1990 


10,000 


1989 


18,200 


1958 


37,567 


1991 


171,307 


ha 


60,050 


1958 


24,750 


1958 


5,600 


1982 


34,700 


1956 


6,420 


1958 


32,100 


1958 


18,220 


1956 


11,570 


1956 


580 


1978 


4,780 


1956 


1,750 


1962 


4,810 


1958 


28,250 


1959 


18,800 


1956 


11,900 


1958 


7,900 


1956 


5,020 


1962 


35,250 


1956 


42,200 


1956 


520 


1965 


810 


1970 


3,450 


1964 


17,150 


1958 


376,580 


ha 


76,020 


1939 


31,160 


1927 


60,520 


1927 


2,228 


1927 


740 


1927 


60,150 


1952 


48,622 


1927 


43,200 


1927 


152,000 


1927 


21,742 


1927 


73,160 


1927 


569,542 


ha 



ha* 



300,000 
37,567 
113,000 
450,567 ha 



40S 



Totals 

Existing conservation areas 44 sites 1,132,429 ha* 

Proposed conservation areas 4 sites 450,567 ha* 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



406 



Forest Reserves 


1 


Amalika 


2 


Bangwe 


3 


Bunganya 


4 


Chigumula 


5 


Chilolowe 


6 


Chimaliro 


7 


Chiradzulu 


8 


Chisasira 


9 


Chongoni 


10 


Dedza Mountain 


11 


Dedza/Salima 


12 


Dowa Hills 


13 


Dzalanyama 


14 


Dzenza 


15 


Dzonzi Mvai 


16 


Escarpment 


17 


Kalulu Hills 


18 


Kalwe 


19 


Kangwe 


20 


Kaning ' ina 


21 


Kanjedza 


22 


Kawilwe 


23 


Litchenya 


24 


Liwonde 


25 


Mafinga Hills# 


26 


Malabvi 


27 


Maleri Islands 


28 


Malosa 


29 


Mangochi 


30 


Mangochi Palm 


31 


Masambanjati 


32 


Masenjere 


33 


Matandwe 


34 


Matipa# 


35 


Mchinji 


36 


Michiru 


37 


Mirale 1 


38 


Mndilansadzu 


39 


Msitolengwe 


40 


Mtangatanga 


41 


Mua-Livulezi 


42 


Mua-Tsanya 


43 


Mughese 


44 


Mulanje 


45 


Musisi 


46 


Mvai 


47 


Nalikule 


48 


Namizimu 


49 


Ndirande 


50 


Ngara 


51 


Nkhwazi 


52 


Ntchisi 


53 


Nyika Juniper 


54 


Perekezi 


55 


Phirilongwe 


56 


Ruvuo 


57 


Sambani 


58 


Senga 


59 


Soche 


60 


South Viphya 


61 


Thambani 


62 


Thuchila 


63 


Thuma 


64 


Thyolo 



520 
4,196 
3,470 

622 

1,347 

17,120 

1,140 

932 

12,639 

3,263 

2,420 

98,934 

829 

4,020 

32,600 

2,823 

200 

18,133 

14,970 

181 

699 

55 

29,473 

4,260 

207 

8,599 

37,553 

510 

92 

101 

26,205 

1,062 

19,166 

3,263 

103 

85 

8,443 

12,147 

1,062 

673 

55,209 

6,734 

4,268 

104 

86,994 

1,709 

2,253 

2,668 

9,712 

14,762 

16,129 

2,460 

129 

1,420 

363 

4,947 

2,434 

16,395 

1,321 



1974 
1930 
1973 
1925 

1926 
1924 
1935 
1924 
1926 
1974 
1974 
1922 
1948 
1924 

1958 
1956 
1926 
1935 
1922 
1935 
1948 
1924 
1976 
1927 
1971 
1924 
1924 
1980 
1974 
1930 
1931 
1948 
1924 
1970 
1949 
1958 
1974 
1935 
1924 
1932 
1948 
1927 
1948 
1924 
1948 
1924 
1922 

1927 
1924 

1935 
1924 
1935 
1948 
1958 
1922 
1948 
1927 
1925 
1926 
1924 



407 



65 Thyolo Mwani 

66 Tsamba 

67 Uzumara 

68 Vinthukutu 

69 Wilindi 

70 Zomba 

Subtotal 

Game Reserves 

71 Majete 

72 Mwabvi 

73 Nkhota-Kota 

74 Vwaza Marsh 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

75 Kasungu 

76 Lake Malawi 

77 Lengwe 

78 Liwonde 

79 Nyika 

Subtotal 







932 




1930 






3,237 




1928 






596 




1948 






2,227 




1948 






907 




1948 






5,957 




1913 


70 


sites 


617,984 

69,100 

13,500 

180,200 

98,600 


ha' 


k 

1955 
1953 
1954 
1977 


4 


sites 


361,400 

231,600 

8,700 

88,700 

53,800 

313,400 


ha 


1970 
1980 
1970 
1973 
1965 


5 


sites 


696,200 


ha 





Proposed (Forest Reserves) 
Bangwe 
Chcunbe 
Champira 
Chantasha 
Chanthui^a 
Chapananga 

Chikwawa Eastern escarpment 
Chilenje 
Chilolowe 
Chimvuo 
Chingale 
Chingoli 
Chinthi 
Chinundwe 
Chinungu/Kapelula 
Chipala 
Chipande 
Chiperoni 
Chipokosa 

Chisasira Extension 
Chitipa (Urban) 
Choma/Mpeza 
Dwambazi 

Dzonzi Mvai Extension 
Henga Hills 
Ighembe 
Jembya 
Kakhome 
Kalembo Hills 
Kambuto 

Kaning'ina Extension 
Kanobli 
Kaombe 

Karonga Escarpment 
Kasimba 

Kasungu/Chipala 
Katili 
Kavuzi 

Kawinga/Nyambi Hills 
Kawiya 
Kholonje 
Macheleni 1 
Macheleni 11 



79 

212 

7,400 

17,400 

1,347 

144 

6,700 

1 

5,281 

107 

1,600 

84 

151 
17,404 

11,364 

788,627 

4,690 

400 

15,010 

185 

17,720 

7 

9,398 

17,715 

76,152 

17,870 

65 

143 

5,776 

7,700 

1,160 



408 



Machemba 

Mahowa 7,500 

Malinda 85 

Maoko 2 

Mbula 1,600 

Mchezi/Chiuta 32 

Mfumbati 8,048 

Mirale 11 14 

Mpemba 503 

Msusi Extension 7,588 

Muwanga 1,268 

Mzuma/Ngazi 9,293 

Nagogoda 34 

Namatunu 

Namilongo 109 

Ncunisu 33 

Nankhunda 1,250 

Nansengwe 476 

Neno Eastern escarpment 63,100 

Ngani 2 

Ngara (Karonga) 471 

Ngongonda 700 

Njakwa 

Nkhoma 

Nkhwazi 3 

Nkopola 

Nkuluti 10 

North Viphya 6,816 

Ntiya. 1.11.111 

Ntonya 

Phirilongwe Extension 66,208 

Pirimiti 

Sani 260 

Sanjo 987 

Simulemba 56 

Songwe 

South Viphya Extension 38,047 

Tedzani/Nkula 9,300 

Thambani Extension 5,700 

Thawiro 1,292 

Therere 

Tsambe Extension 4,400 

Uluinba 

Zigoma 

Zobue 

Subtotal 88 sites 1,267,079 ha* 

Totals 

Existing conservation areas 79 sites 1,675,584 ha* 

Proposed conservation areas 88 sites 1,267,079 ha* 

* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



409 



MOZAMBIQUE 



Faunal Reserve 

1 Ilhas da Inhaca e dos Portugueses 
Subtotal 



1 site 



2,000 1965 
2,000 ha 



Forest Reserves 


2 


Baixo Pinda 


3 


Bobole 


4 


Derre 


5 
6 


Inhamitanga 
Licuati 


7 


Maribano 


8 
9 


Maronga 
Matibane 


10 


Mecuburi 


11 


Mucheve 


12 
13 
14 


Nepalue 

Nhapacue 

Ribaue 


15 


Zomba 




Subtotal 


Game Reserves 


16 


Gile 


17 
18 


Maputo 
Marromeu 


19 


Niassa 


20 


Pomene 




Subtotal 



Marine National Park 

21 Paradise Island 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

22 Banhine 

23 Bazaruto Marine 

24 Gorongosa 

25 Zinave 

Subtotal 

Wildlife Utilization Areas 

26 Limpopo Valley 

27 Zambezi 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Marine National Park) 
Nacala-Mossuril 
Subtotal 

Proposed (National Parks) 

Primeira and Segunda Islands 
Quirimba Islands 
Rovuma 

San Sebastian Peninsula 
Subtotal 



Totals 



14 sites 



5 sites 



1 site 



4 sites 



2 sites 



1 site 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



4 sites 



27 sites 
5 sites 



4,200 



1950 



4,200 


ha< 


» 


210,000 




1960 


90,000 




1969 


1,000,000 




1969 


1,500,000 




1960 


10,000 




1972 


2,810,000 


ha 




377,000 




1972 


377,000 


ha 




700,000 




1972 


15,000 




1971 


375,000 




1960 


500,000 




1972 



1,590,000 ha 



1,200,000 1979 
1,000,000 1981 
2,200,000 ha 



ha* 

1,500,000 
1,500,000 ha* 



6,983,200 ha* 
1,500,000 ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 

'The areas of individual forest reserves ranges from l,600ha to 190,000ha 
(Tello,1986) , 



410 



NAMIBIA 



Game Parks 

1 Ai-Ais Hot Springs & Fish River Canyon 
Daan Viljoen 

Gross Barmen Hot Springs 
Hardap 
Kaudom 
Mahango 
Namib/Naukluft 

8 Naute Dam 

9 Popa Falls Rest Camp 

10 Skeleton Coast 

11 Von Bach 

12 Waterberg Plateau 

13 Western Caprivi 

Subtotal 



National Parks 

14 Btosha 

15 Mamili 

16 Hudumu 

Subtotal 

Natural Monument 

17 Duwiseb Castle 

Subtotal 

Nature Reserves 

18 Cape Cross Seal 

19 South West African (WHK) 

Subtotal 



13 sites 



3 sites 



1 site 



2 sites 





346,117 




1969 




3,953 




1962 




100 




1966 




25,177 




1964 




384,162 




1989 




24,462 




1990 


4, 


,976,800 




1979 




5 




1989 




25 




1983 


1, 


,600,000 




1967 




4,285 




1972 




40,549 




1972 




600,000 




1968 


8, 


,005,635 


ha 




2, 


,227,000 




1958 




32,000 




1990 




101,400 




1990 


2, 


,360,400 


ha 






50 




1979 




50 


ha 






6,000 




1967 




5 




1970 




6,005 


ha 





Recreation Areas 

20 National Diamond Coast 

21 National West Coast Tourist 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



2,900 1977 
780,000 1974 
782,900 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



21 site 
sites 



11,154,990 ha 
ha 



411 



RWANDA 



Hunting Reserve 
1 Mutara 

Subtotal 



1 site 



30,000 
30,000 ha 



Integral Forest Reserves 

2 Gishwati 

3 Mukura 

4 Nyungwe 

Subtotal 



3 sites 



21,000 
2,100 
97,000 
120,100 ha 



National Parks 

5 Akagera 

6 Volcans 

Subtotal 



2 sites 



312,000 1934 
15,000 1929 
327,000 ha 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



6 sites 
sites 



477,100 ha 
ha 



412 



TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF 



Conservation Area 

1 Ngorongoro 

Subtotal 

Game Controlled Areas 

2 Burunge 

3 Chabula Marsh 

4 Endulen 

5 Gombe 

6 Grumeti 

7 Handeni 

8 Igombe Dam 

9 Ikorongo 

10 Kalimawe 

11 Kigosi 

12 Kihirumira Pool 

13 Kilombero 

14 Kitwai 

15 Kongwa 

16 Lake Daramatai 

17 Lake Kwila 

18 Lake Manka 

19 Lake Natron 

20 Lihogosa 

21 Loliondo 

22 Lolkisale 

23 Longldo 

24 Luganzo 

25 Lukwati 

26 Masasi River 

27 Meserani Dam 

28 Mic-wa-Mbu 

29 Mkungunero 

30 Mlele 

31 Msima 

32 Muhuwesi 

33 Mwadui Diamond Mine 

34 Mwambesi 

35 Nchwa-Nkima 

36 Ngeju-Njiro Dam 

37 Ngorongoro 

38 Nyonga 

39 Rau Forest 

40 Rukwa 

41 Rungwa River 

42 Ruvu Masai 

43 Ruvu Same 

44 Sanya-Lelatema 

45 Simanjiro 

46 Speke Gulf 

47 Ugunda 

48 Umba River 

49 Utengule Swamps 

Subtotal 

Game Reserves 

50 Biharamulo 

51 Burigi 

52 Ibanda 

53 Kigosi 

54 Kilimanjaro 

55 Kizigo 

56 Maswa 

57 Mkomazi 

58 Mount Meru 





828,800 


1959 


1 site 


828,800 


ha 




40,000 


1974 




10,000 


1974 




60,000 


1974 




300,000 


1974 




200,000 


1974 




350,000 


1974 




10,000 


1974 




300,000 


1974 




30,000 


1974 




700,000 


1974 




10,000 


1974 




650,000 


1974 




350,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




2 


1974 




7,000 


1974 




2,000 


1974 




300,000 


1974 




3,000 


1974 




400,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




250,000 


1974 




200,000 


1974 




18,000 


1974 




7,500 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




70,000 


1974 




300,000 


1974 




200,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




1,000 


1974 




100,000 


1974 




5,000 


1974 




3,000 


1974 




1,500,000 


1974 




3,500,000 


1974 




10,000 


1974 




40,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




100,000 


1974 




80,000 


1974 




200,000 


1974 




30,000 


1974 




150,000 


1974 




30,000 


1974 




50,000 


1974 


48 sites 


11,616,502 


ha 




130,000 


1959 




220,000 


1980 




20,000 


1974 




90,000 


1974 




400,000 


1974 




220,000 


1969 




100,000 


1951 




30,000 


1974 



413 



59 Moyowosi 

60 Rumanyika 

61 Rungwa 

62 Saadani 

63 Saanane Island 

64 Seloue 

65 Ugalla River 

66 Urnba 

67 Uwanda 

Subtotal 

Marine Reserves 

68 Bongoyo & Pangavini Islands 

69 Chole Bay 

70 Fungu Yasini 

71 Maziwi Island 

72 Mbudya 

73 Tanga Coral Gardens 

74 Tutia Island 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

75 Arusha 

76 Gombe 

77 Katavi 

78 Kilimanjaro 

79 Lake Manyara 

80 Mahale Mountain 

81 Mikumi 

82 Ruaha 

83 Rubondo 

84 Serengeti 

85 Tarangire 

Subtotal 

Proposed (Game Reserves) 
Grumeti 
Ikorongo 
Kijereshi 
Subtotal 

Proposed (National Park) 
Udzungwa 
Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 







600,000 


1982 






80,000 








900,000 


1951 






30,000 


1968 






50 


1974 






5,000,000 


1922 






500,000 


1964 






150,000 


1974 






500,000 


1971 


18 


sites 


8,970,050 


ha* 

1981 
1981 
1981 
1981 
1981 
1981 
1981 


7 


sites 




ha* 






13,700 


1967 






5,200 


1968 






225,300 


1974 






75,575 


1973 






32,500 


1960 






157,700 


1985 






323,000 


1964 






1,295,000 


1964 






45,700 


1977 






1,476,300 


1951 






260,000 


1970 


11 


site 


3,909,975 

200,000 
300,000 


ha 


3 


sites 


500,000 
120,000 


ha* 


1 


site 


120,000 


ha 


85 


sites 


25,325,327 


ha* 


4 


sites 


620,000 


ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



414 



ZAMBIA 



Game Management Areas 

1 Bangweulu 

2 Bilili Springs 

3 Chambeshi 

4 Chibwika-Ntambu 

5 Chisomo 

6 Chizera 

7 Kafinda 

8 Kafue Flats 

9 Kalaso Mukoso 

10 Kansonso-Busanga 

11 Kaputa 

12 Luano 

13 Lukwakwa 

14 Lumimba 

15 Lunga-Luswishi 

16 Lupande 

17 Luwingu 

18 Machiya-Fungulwe 

19 Mansa 

20 Mazabuka 

21 Mulobezi 

22 Mumbwa 

23 Munyamadzi 

24 Musalangu 

25 Musele-Matebo 

26 Namwala 

27 Nkala 

28 Sandwe 

29 Sichifula 

30 Tondwa 

31 West Petauke 

32 West Zambezi 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

33 Blue Lagoon 

34 Isangano 

35 Kafue 

36 Kasanka 

37 Lavushi Manda 

38 Liuwa Plain 

39 Lochinvar 

40 Lower Zambezi 

41 Luambe 

42 Lukusuzi 

43 Lusenga Plain 

44 Mosi-Oa-Tunya 

45 Mweru-Wantipa 

46 North Luangwa 

47 Nsumbu 

48 Nyika (Zambia) 

49 Sioma Ngwezi 

50 South Luangwa 

51 West Lunga 

Subtotal 

Natural Monument 

52 Victoria Falls 

Subtotal 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 





657,000 


1971 




308,000 


1971 




62,000 


1971 




155,000 


1971 




339,000 


1971 




228,000 


1971 




386,000 


1971 




517,500 


1971 




67,500 


1971 




778,000 


1971 




360,000 


1971 




893,000 


1971 




254,000 


1971 




450,000 


1971 




1,334,000 


1971 




484,000 


1971 




109,000 


1971 




153,000 


1971 




207,000 


1971 




25,400 


1971 




342,000 


1971 




337,000 


1971 




330,000 


1971 




1,735,000 


1971 




370,000 


1971 




360,000 


1971 




19,400 


1971 




153,000 


1971 




360,000 


1971 




54,000 


1971 




414,000 


1971 




3,807,000 


1971 


32 sites 


16,048,800 


ha 




45,000 


1973 




84,000 


1972 




2,240,000 


1951 




39,000 


1972 




150,000 


1972 




366,000 


1972 




41,000 


1972 




414,000 


1983 




25,400 


1972 




272,000 


1972 




88,000 


1972 




6,600 


1972 




313,400 


1972 




463,600 


1972 




202,000 


1972 




8,000 


1972 




527,600 


1972 




905,000 


1972 




168,400 


1972 


19 sites 


6,359,000 


ha 




1,900 


1948 


1 site 


1,900 


ha 


52 sites 


22,409,700 


ha 


sites 




ha 



415 



ZIMBABWE 



Botanical Reserves 

1 Bunga Forest 

2 Chisekera Hot Spings 

3 Haroni Forest 

4 Mazowe 

5 Mwari Raphia Palm 

6 Pioneer 

7 Rusitu Forest 

8 Sebakwe Acacia Karoo 

9 Sebakwe Great Dyke 

10 Sebakwe Mountain Acacia 

11 South Camp 

12 Tingwa Raphin Palm 

13 Tolo River 

14 Vumba 

Subtotal 

National Parks 

15 Chimanimani 

16 Chizarira 

17 Gonarezhou 

18 Hwange (Wankie) 

19 Kazuma Pan 

20 Mana Pools 

21 Matobo (Matopos) 

22 Matusadona 

23 Nyanga 

24 Victoria Falls 

25 Zambezi 

Subtotal 

Recreation Parks 

26 Bangala 

27 Chibwatata Hot Springs 

28 Chinhoyi Caves 

29 Kariba 

30 Kavira Hot Springs 

31 Kyle 

32 Lake Robertson (Darwendale) 

33 Manjirenji 

34 Mayfair and Palawan 

35 Mcllwaine 

36 Mufuli 

37 Muzingwane 

38 Ngezi 

39 Sebakwe 

40 Umfuli (Hartley A) 

Subtotal 

Safari Areas 

41 Charara 

42 Chegutu (Hartley A) 

43 Chete 

44 Chewore 

45 Chipinge 

46 Chirisa 

47 Dande 

48 Deka 

49 Doma 

50 Hurungwe 

51 Island 52 

52 Malipati 

53 Matetsi 

54 Mfurundzi 

55 Sapi 



14 sites 



11 site 



15 sites 



40 


1975 


95 




20 




43 




34 




38 




150 




60 




165 




53 




26 




290 




44 




42 




1,100 


ha 


17,100 


1950 


191,000 


1975 


505,300 


1975 


1,465,100 


1949 


31,300 


1975 


219,600 


1975 


42,500 


1926 


140,700 


1975 


33,000 


1950 


2,000 


1952 


56,300 


1979 


2,703,900 


ha 


2,700 


1975 


10 




148 


1975 


283,000 


1979 


50 




16,910 


1975 


11,200 




3,400 




150 




6,100 


1975 


12,700 




1,233 


1975 


5,800 


1975 


2,600 


1975 


346,001 


ha* 


169,400 


1975 


44,500 


1975 


108,100 


1975 


339,000 


1964 


26,100 


1975 


171,300 


1975 


52,300 


1975 


51,000 


1975 


94,500 


1975 


287,800 


1975 


4 




15,400 


1975 


295,500 


1975 


76,000 


1976 


118,000 


1975 



416 



56 Sibilobilo Islands 

57 Tuli 

Subtotal 

Sanctuaries 

58 Boulton Atlantica 

59 Chimanimani Eland 

60 Manjinji Pan 

61 Mbaze Pan 

62 Mushandike 

63 Nyamaneche 

64 Tshabalala 

Subtotal 

State Forests 

65 Banti 

66 Chirinda 

67 Gungunyana 

68 Martin (i) 

69 York 

Subtotal 



17 sites 



7 sites 



5 sites 



2,270 




1979 


41,600 




1975 


,892,774 


ha 




57 






1,800 




1975 


300 




1975 


40 




1975 


12,900 




1975 


2,480 






1,100 






18,677 


ha 




2,212 






950 






1,700 






700 






1,455 






7,017 


ha 





Proposed (National Park) 
Greater Nyanga 
Subtotal 



1 site 



ha* 



Totals 



Existing conservation areas 
Proposed conservation areas 



69 sites 
1 site 



4,969,469 ha* 
ha* 



* Subtotal is incomplete because of missing data. 



417 



\nnex 1 0.2 Extent of notified forests by forest origin and forest 

function. Non -forest includes both degraded forest and 
lands not forested at the time of their reservation. 



Region: Africa 

i^ame of country/state: Angola 

rotal area (sq.km): 1 246700 

Land area (sq . km) : 1 246700 

«1onth/year of reference: 1 981 



Sub -region: Tropical Southern Africa 



OREST 
DRIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
vJon -forest 
Plantation 

rOTAL 



1856000 



1856000 



Nlotes: 



Data provided by FAO, 1 981 . 

In 1 981 , there were 1 8 forest reserves covering 1 ,856,000 
ha, but these have received little attention (FAO, 1981). 

Conservation areas are the responsibility of the Wildlife 
Department within the Forestry Development Institute and 
are not included in the above table. 



418 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Botswana 
Total area (sq.km): 581 730 

Land area (sq.km): 566730 

Month/year of reference: Marcii, 1 991 



Sub -region: Tropical Southern Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



391750 



63750 



TOTAL 



391750 



63750 



Notes: Data provided by the Forestry Division, 1 991 . 

Of the six forest reserves (455,500 ha) in the country, 
four are still being logged and are therefore considered to 
be production forests as per FAO definitions. 



419 



^nnex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

iMame of country/state: Burundi 
Total area (sq . km) : 27830 

nd area (sq.km): 25650 



Lai 



VIontli/year of reference: 1 989 



Sub-region: Tropical Southern Africa 



pOREST 
DRIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(iia) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Matural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 





2500 
50020 





3000 
10135 



43000 
56000 
29540 



20000 

76000 

3000 















TOTAL 



52520 



13135 



128540 



99000 



Notes: Data provided by the Institut National pour I'Environnement 

et la Conservation de la Nature Departement des Forets 
(Rapport 1989). 

All conservation forests in the country are listed as 
national parks and nature reserves, and as they do not fall 
under the jurisdiction of the Department des Forets, are 
therefore not included in the above table. 



420 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Madagascar 
Total area (sq . km) : 587040 

Land area (sq.km): 581 540 

Month/year of reference: 1 991 



Sub-region: Insular Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1570044 



4627278 



TOTAL 



1570044 



4627278 



Notes: Data provided by WCMC database, 1 991 ; Direction des Eaux et 

Forets, 1 969. 

All protected areas fall under the jurisdiction of the 
Direction des eaux et forets. Production forests include 
forest reserves (1 24) and forest stations (1 ). 
Conservation forests include national parks (6), strict 
nature reserves (11), special reserves (23), hunting 
reserves (4), reforestation and restauration areas (77), 
and classified forests (158). 



421 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Malawi 

Total area (sq . km) : 11 8480 

Land area (sq.km): 94080 



Month/year of reference: September 1 991 . 



Sub-region: Tropical Southern Africa 



IFOREST 
ORIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
I Plantation 



98924 



617984 1267079 



TOTAL 



98924 



617984 1267079 



Notes: Data provided by the Department of Forestry, 1 991 . 

The forest reserve network is comprised of 49 production 
reserves, 70 protection reserves, and 88 proposed 
protection reserves. 

All production forests (plantations) have conservation 
working circles within them which are either selectively 
felled or left undisturbed. No data is currently 
available on the area of working circles left unexploited. 

Protection forests serve protection and conservation 
functions. A breakdown of this by area has not however 
been provided. 



422 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Mozambique 
Total area (sq. km) : 799380 

Land area (sq.km): 781 880 

Month/year of reference: 1 981 



Sub-region: Tropical Southern Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



1940000 



TOTAL 



1940000 



Notes: Data provided by the African Forestry Commission: Progress 

Report on Forestry 1 983/85. 

According to legislation, the 14 forest reserves in the 
country serve mainly a conservation function. 

An earlier estimate (FAO, 1 981 ) stated that there were 1 1 
forest reserves covering a total area of 41 0,300 ha. 



423 



\nnex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

NJame of country/state: Namibia 

Total area (sq . km) : 824290 

.and area (sq.km): 823290 

^onth/year of reference: 1 990 



Sub- region: Tropical Southern Africa 



j=OREST 
IDRIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Njatural 



^Jon -forest 



Plantation 



rOTAL 



Notes: 



Data provided by Hilbert, 1990; Erkkila & Siiskonen, 1992; 
Finne, 1 992. 



The recently approved National Forest Policy states that 
1 0% of the country's land area will be managed as state 
forests. Some a-eas have already been demarcated and are 
treated as forest reserves (Finne, 1 992). Further 
information on these areas is, however, not available. 



424 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Rwanda 

Total area (sq . km) : 26340 

Land area (sq.l<m): 24950 

l\/lonth/year of reference: 1 990 



Sub-region: Tropica! Soutliern Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



138000 



76000 



120100 



TOTAL 



138000 



76000 



120100 



Notes: Data provided by Le Ministre de I'Agriculture, de I'Elevage 

et des Forets, 1 990. 



425 



\nnex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

iMame of country/state: Tanzania 
rotalarea(sq.l<m): 945090 

Land area (sq.km): 886040 

^ontli/year of reference: 1 991 



Sub-region: Tropical Southern Africa 



•OREST 
DRIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 



11800000 



1600000 



Non -forest 



Plantation 



rOTAL 



11800000 



1600000 



Motes: Data provided by MIowe (pers. comm.), Forest Division, 3 

September 1991. 

lUCN (1 992) has stated that about 45% of forest reserves 
are closed to timber production. This is not reflected in 
the above table. 

The 1 ,600,000 ha of conservation forest are primarily water 
catchments. 

A number of forest reserves are located in game reserves. 
The total area for conservation areas in the country may, 
therefore, be inflated (Table 10.3). 



426 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Name of country/state: Zambia 

Total area (sq. km) : 75261 

Land area (sq . km) : 743390 

Month/year of reference: January 1991 



Sub-region: Tropical Soutliern Africa 



FOREST FUNCTION 

FOREST Production forests Protection forests 

ORIGIN Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 

(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 
Non -forest 
Plantation 



7255341 



804 



TOTAL 



7256145 



Notes: Data provided by Chakanga (Forest Department), pers. comm., 

11 July 1991. 

'Protected' and 'commercial' forests may be either national 
or local forests. 

'Protected' forests (5,884,516 ha natural, 512 ha 
plantation) are mostly productive forests protecting 
sources of streams or rivers, or located on hilly terrain 
to guard against soil erosion (Chakanga, pers. comm., 
1 991). In the above table, therefore, these forest are 
considered to be production forests. 



427 



Annex 10.2 (continued) 



Region: Africa 

Klame of country/state: Zimbabwe 
Total area (sq . i<m) : 390580 

Land area (sq.km): 386670 

Montii/year of reference: 1 990 

r — 



Sub-region: Tropical Southern Africa 



POREST 
DRIGIN 



FOREST FUNCTION 

Production forests Protection forests 

Existing Proposed Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) (ha) (ha) 



Conservation forests 
Existing Proposed 
(ha) (ha) 



Natural 

iMon -forest 

I 

Plantation 



895698 



96317 



2155 



4862 



rOTAL 



992015 



2155 



4862 



NJotes: Data provided by Gondo (Forestry Commission), pers. comm., 

13 July 1990. 

Most forest reserves are managed on a multiple use basis 
for the production of exploitable timber, for the 
management and utilisation of wildlife, and for the 
protection of soils and water catchment areas. They have 
therefore been placed under the production forest category. 

The total for natural production forest includes 60,855 ha 
which are communal forests. 

Eastern District forest reserves have been entered as 
protection or conservation reserves in the above table. 



428